By R. Arokkh. Ursuline College.
Sequencing technologies to identify variations in candidate genes that may play a role in drug responses generic 100mg trazodone with visa, use of pharmacogenetic testing to examine genetic variability in side effects from medi- cation order 100mg trazodone with mastercard, and use of gene expression proﬁling to determine transcriptomics changes associated with drug response trazodone 100mg low price. Personalized Therapy for Smoking Cessation The evidence to date is very consistent with respect to the signiﬁcance of genetic contributions to smoking behavior. Variants in the genes encoding the α5-α3-β4 nico- tinic receptor subunits most strongly contribute to differences in the risk for develop- ing nicotine dependence among smokers and a differential response to pharmacologic treatment for smoking cessation (Bierut et al. As the ﬁeld of genetics and smoking research progresses, increasing attention is being devoted to gene-environ- ment interactions, with particular attention to the identiﬁcation of genetic variants that may modify the effects of pharmacological treatment for smoking. Universal Free E-Book Store 476 13 Personalized Management of Psychiatric Disorders With advances in molecular biology and genomics technology, individualization of smoking cessation therapy according to genotype is within our grasp. Such research has the potential to improve treatment outcome, thereby reducing morbid- ity and mortality from smoking-related disease. A dopamine receptor gene polymorphism appears to inﬂuence the response of cigarette smokers to smoking cessation therapy that includes an antidepressant medicine − venlafaxine. A clinical trial showed no signiﬁcant difference between the active and placebo treatments for the smokers with the A1 allele in terms of reduction in negative affect during their attempt to quit but those with the A2 allele receiving venlafaxine have 25 % lower score on testing for negative affect. This demonstrates the value of genotyping in designing a spe- ciﬁc smoking cessation therapy for a subgroup of patients. Effectiveness of Nicotine Patches in Relation to Genotype In women the effectiveness of nicotine patches seems to be related to genotype. The increased effectiveness reﬂected a tendency to a higher quit rate with the active patches and a lower quit rate with placebo patches. The overall effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy could be greater if the therapy were targeted at those most likely to respond. Future Prospects of Personalized Psychiatry Limited number of applications of personalized medicine approach in psychiatry has shown the usefulness of this approach and identiﬁed this as an area for further development. Pre-emptive approaches are an important part of personalized medi- cine and preventive psychiatry requires predictive tools that are currently not ade- quate. Biomarkers are needed to develop a clinical staging model for psychiatric disorders. The staging model also facilitates integration of data on the biological, social and environmental factors that inﬂuence mental illness into existing clinical and diagnostic infrastructure, which will provide a major step forward in the devel- opment of a truly pre-emptive psychiatry (McGorry et al. Universal Free E-Book Store References 477 References Alemi F, Zargoush M, Erdman H, et al. Toward personalized medicine in the pharmacotherapy of alcohol use disorder: targeting patient genes and patient goals. The antidepressant treatment response index as a predictor of reboxetine treatment outcome in major depressive disorder. Identiﬁcation of risk loci with shared effects on ﬁve major psychiatric disorders: a genome-wide analysis. Cytochrome p450 phenotyping/genotyping in patients receiving antipsychotics: useful aid to prescribing? A preliminary attempt to personalize risperidone dosing using drug-drug interactions and genetics: part I. Neurophysiologic correlates of side effects in normal subjects randomized to venlafaxine or placebo. Pharmacogenetic approach at the serotonin trans- porter gene as a method of reducing the severity of alcohol drinking. A micro opioid receptor gene polymorphism (A118G) and nal- trexone treatment response in adherent Korean alcohol-dependent patients. A double-blind, randomized trial of sertraline for alcohol dependence: moderation by age of onset [corrected] and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter- linked promoter region genotype. Functional polymorphism of the dopamineβ-hydroxylase gene is associated with increased risk of disulﬁram-induced adverse effects in alcohol-depen- dent patients. Association of a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene with abnormal emotional processing in ecstasy users. Universal Free E-Book Store 478 13 Personalized Management of Psychiatric Disorders Sjoqvist F, Eliasson E. The convergence of conventional therapeutic drug monitoring and pharma- cogenetic testing in personalized medicine: focus on antidepressants. Effectiveness of nicotine patches in relation to genotype in women versus men: randomised controlled trial. Advances in biotechnologies are being applied to improve the diagnosis and treatment of cardio- vascular disorders (Jain 2011). A ﬁve-step strategy can be followed when trying to identify genes and gene products involved in differential responses to cardiovascu- lar drugs (Siest et al. Cardiovascular diseases and risks depending on speciﬁc or large metabolic cycles 4. Environmental inﬂuences on them Cardiogenomics The term “cardiogenomics” or “cardiovascular genomics” is applied to the descrip- tion of genes underlying cardiovascular disorders and the use of genomic technolo- gies for developing diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Molecular genetic technologies can now provide sensitive and efﬁcient genetic testing, not only to identify polymorphic drug metabolism genes, but also to identify disease-associated genes for diagnosis and risk stratiﬁcation of many hereditary cardiovascular diseases. A combination of proteomics technologies with genomic technologies has enhanced the understand- ing of molecular basis of cardiovascular disorders. Reported polymorphisms relevant to cardiovascular disease management are shown in Table 14. Genotyping for cardiovascular disorders polymorphisms enables per- sonalization in management. This effect is primarily evident in patients not treated with β-blockers and is not seen in patients receiving therapy implying that β-blocker therapy can negate this effect. Despite the enormous progress in sequencing the human genome and in molecu- lar genetic and bioinformatic techniques during the past decade, the progress in mapping and identifying genes responsible for complex traits such as coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction has been modest and presents a formidable challenge to medical research in the twenty-ﬁrst century. One example is the study of why hypertension is more frequent and more severe in Afro-Americans.
There are numerous types of brushes (manual and electric) and toothpastes available trazodone 100 mg lowest price. Both manual (preferably with a small head) and electric brushes are equally effective for plaque removal trazodone 100mg otc. However order trazodone 100mg online, the cost of brushes and pastes can be prohibitive for some low socio-economic groups wherein reality toothbrushing has become a low priority. This is where community and school-based programmes are needed to ensure provision of oral health measures. Children do not have the manual dexterity to brush their teeth effectively until they can tie their own shoelaces (about 7 years of age). However, even after this children should still be supervised to establish a regular routine and to ensure a good oral health practice. Fluoride is cleared quickly from the oral cavity that many advise to swish the toothpaste saliva slurry around the mouth and not to rinse with water in order to maintain elevated intra-oral fluoride levels for longer periods of time. As dental caries is caused by bacteria in plaque fermenting dietary carbohydrates to acids which dissolve enamel, it is logical to prevent caries by removing plaque from teeth, usually with a toothbrush. Unfortunately, many investigations indicate that caries reduction is not brought about by improved toothbrushing alone. However, it must be said straight away that, first, toothbrushing is a very important way of controlling gingivitis and periodontal disease and, second, that toothbrushing with toothpaste is a very important way of conveying fluoride to the tooth surface. The results of the few studies to investigate the effect of flossing on dental caries are mixed. Daily flossing of the teeth of young children reduced caries in one study but no preventive effect was observed in older children who flossed their own teeth. Twenty-five years ago, in Kalstaad, Sweden, caries increments were virtually eliminated in children who had fortnightly prophylaxes and intensive preventive advice by dental hygienists. Other workers have tried to reproduce those sensational results (96% caries reduction compared with a control group) but have failed to do so, illustrating the difficulty of extrapolating findings of trials from one country to another. Plaque growth can be prevented by twice-daily rinsing with chlorhexidine but because of the intra-oral side-effects of chlorhexidine (changed taste sensation, poor taste, and tooth staining), it is usually recommended for short-term use only to aid periodontal care. However, the literature is controversial and there are many conflicting views and opinions regarding sugar consumption. This is probably irrelevant, as bacteria need a fermentable source of carbohydrate to produce acid. The review paper of Burt and Pai (2001) summarizes the conflict in opinions on sugar. However, we should concentrate on giving sensible practical everyday advice to our patients as shown in Table 6. Advising parents to completely stop their children from eating sugary foods is not achievable! Plaque pH responses of these drinks showed falls to below the critical pH of apatite (pH = 5. We should promote that for young children drinks are consumed from trainer cups, beakers, and to use straws. In addition to fruit and vegetables, crisps and peanuts have also been recommended as safer alternatives. However, citrus fruits have been implicated in the aetiology of dental erosion and peanuts are associated with inhalation risk in small children. At the end of the meal or snack the acid is buffered by saliva and the mineral loss stops and reverses under favourable conditions. Frequent snackers have predominantly mineral loss and little if any remineralization. When volunteers did not use a fluoride toothpaste mineral demineralization was observed with the frequency as low as three times per day. However, when fluoride toothpaste was used twice daily no significant mineral demineralization was observed up to a frequency of sugar consumption of seven times per day. Therefore, brushing twice per day with a fluoride toothpaste, subjects should safely be able to have five meal moments per day. Non-sugar sweeteners Those allowed for use in foods and drinks in the United Kingdom are given in Table248H 6. The intense sweeteners and xylitol are non-cariogenic while the other bulk sweeteners can be metabolized by plaque bacteria but the rate is so slow that these sweeteners can be considered safe for teeth. The use of non-sugar sweeteners is growing rapidly particularly in confectionery and soft drinks. Confectionery products which have passed a well-established acidogenicity test can be labelled with the Mr Happy-Tooth logo (Fig. Tooth-friendly sweets are available in about 26 countries; in Switzerland about 20 per cent of confectionery sold carries the Tooth-friendly (or Mr Happy-Tooth) logo. There is good evidence that sugarless chewing gums are not only non-cariogenic but also positively prevent dental caries, by stimulating salivary flow. As an example, they have accredited dentrifices which have proven effectiveness, for many years. More recently, foods and drinks have been accredited⎯for example, a fruit- flavoured drink which demonstrated to have negligible cariogenic and erosive potential. The bulk sweeteners can have a laxative effect and should not be given to children below 3 years of age. People vary in their sensitivity to these polyols as some adults in the Turku sugar studies were consuming up to 100 g of xylitol per day without effect.
Mineralocorticoids are used in replacement therapy to maintain electro- lyte and fluid balance in hypoadrenalism cheap trazodone 100 mg without a prescription. Mitotane causes selective atrophy of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis and can reduce plasma cortisol level in Cushing syndrome produced by adrenal carcinoma buy 100 mg trazodone overnight delivery. Mitotane use is limited to adrenal carcinomas when other therapies are not feasible order 100mg trazodone. Aminoglutethimide blocks the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and reduces adre- nal production of aldosterone, cortisol, and androgens. Aminoglutethimide is useful in treating hyperadrenalism due to adrenal carcinoma or con- genital adrenal hyperplasia. Metyrapone blocks the activity of 11-hydroxylase, thereby reducing cortisol production. Ketoconazole is an antifungal agent that, at high doses, is a potent inhibitor of several of the P-450 enzymes involved in steroidogenesis in the adrenals and gonads. Natural thyroid hormones are formed by the iodination of tyrosine residues on the glyco- protein thyroglobulin. More than 99% of circulating T4 is bound to plasma proteins; only 5%–10% of T3 is protein bound. Levothyroxine sodium is preferred to liothyronine because it has better oral absorption, has a longer t1/2, and produces a favorable T4:T3 ratio. Thyroid hormones are essential for normal physical and mental development of the fetus. Linear growth of the long bones, growth of the brain, and normal myelination depend on thyroid hormone. Hypothyroidism in infants leads to cretinism (myxedema with physical and mental retardation). They also increase the synthesis of fatty acids and decrease plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Primary, secondary, or tertiary hypothyroidism caused by (1) Hashimoto disease (2) Myxedema (3) Simple goiter (thyroid gland enlargement without hyperthyroidism) (4) Following surgical ablation of the thyroid gland b. Thyroid hormones produce iatrogenic hyperthyroidism, nervousness, anxiety, and headache. These agents induce arrhythmias, angina, or infarction in patients with underlying cardio- vascular disease. Thioamides interfere with the organification and coupling of iodide by inhibiting the perox- idase enzyme. These agents have a t1/2 of approximately 1–2 hours; they are concentrated in the thyroid gland and inhibit thyroid hormone biosynthesis for 6–24 hours. They do not affect T3/T4 already within the thyroid; attaining euthyroid status when initiating therapy may take 2–4 months. Thioamides treat hyperthyroidism from a variety of causes, including Graves disease and toxic goiter. These agents commonly cause rashes, headache, or nausea; they may also induce leukope- nia or agranulocytosis. Anion inhibitors of thyroid function include thiocyanate, perchlorate, and fluoborate. These agents are monovalent anions with a hydrated radius similar in size to that of iodide. Anion inhibitors competitively inhibit the transport of iodide by the thyroid gland. These agents are limited by severe toxicities (including fatal aplastic anemia) to occasional diagnostic use for thyroid function. In high intracellular concentrations, iodide inhibits several steps in thyroid hormone bio- synthesis, including iodide transport and organification (Wolff-Chaikoff effect). This agent is used before thyroid surgery, causing firming of thyroid tissues and decreased thyroid vascularity, and in the treatment of spirotrichosis. Iodide may cause angioedema, rash, a metallic taste on administration, and hypersensitivity reactions. Radioactive iodine I emits beta particles and x-rays and has a radioactive t1/2 of approxi- 131 mately 8 days. Radioactive iodine 131I treats hyperthyroidism via nonsurgical ablation of the thyroid gland or reduction of hyperactive thyroid gland without damage to surrounding tissue. This agent is helpful (in low doses) in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and goiter; it may be used to assess thyroid responsiveness. Bovine insulin differs from human insulin at three amino acid sites; porcine insulin differs in only one amino acid. Insulin is stored as a complex with Zn2+; two molecules of zinc complex six molecules of insulin. Insulin synthesis and release are modulated by the following: (1) The most important stimulus is glucose. Insulin alters the phosphorylation state of key metabolic enzymes, leading to enzymatic activation or inactivation. Insulin induces the transcription of several genes involved in increasing glucose catabolism and specifically inhibits transcription of other genes involved in gluconeogenesis. Liver (1) Inhibits glucose production and increases glycolysis (2) Inhibits glycogenolysis and stimulates glycogen synthesis (3) Increases the synthesis of triglycerides (4) Increases protein synthesis b. Muscle (1) Increases glucose transport and glycolysis (2) Increases glycogen deposition (3) Increases protein synthesis c. Adipose tissue (1) Increases glucose transport (2) Increases lipogenesis and lipoprotein lipase (3) Decreases intracellular lipolysis 4. Insulin is degraded by hepatic glutathione–insulin transhydrogenase, which reduces the di- sulfide linkages between the A and B chains, producing two biologically inactive peptides.