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By D. Malir. Sweet Briar College.

Review the practice and summary sections of chapter 3 to reconnect with the idea that your mind is quite the storyteller and that your thoughts are not the whole truth generic ezetimibe 10 mg with mastercard. As we progress in this book ezetimibe 10mg otc, I will outline additional techniques that will demonstrate how your mind creates its sense of reality and from that generic 10 mg ezetimibe amex, its sense of suffering as well. In examining the process of thought development, from initial experience to story-creation and subsequent emotional and physical responses, you will see how the mind takes every experience and changes it according to your belief system. One such technique involves having a conversation, or dialogue, with your inner critic. You will see that the origin of your belief system is your own inner child trying to be safe. When you can see how your thoughts are your own mental creations, empty illusions and fabrications, you’ll have the key that will allow you to let these thoughts go. This key is nothing more than a clear understanding of the process of thought development. It will give you the tools to see through the smoke of your conditioned experiences and realize an underlying truth; each thought is basically empty. When you’re in a certain frame of mind it sure feels permanent and you probably believe that it is. However, if you really observe whatever you’re experiencing, you’ll see it change. You may have some truly terrible thoughts about yourself or something that happened to you, but ultimately your mind lets go of it all. You then, at least temporarily, start thinking about what you’re going to have for dinner, what to wear tomorrow or what shopping you have to do. If you can get your mind around the idea that all mental states are temporary and impermanent, it can give you the courage to face what life is throwing at you. Be comforted by the knowledge that however bad it may appear, it will change in time. Remember that thoughts are like clouds in the sky that come and go across your field of consciousness. Mindfulness and the Light of Awareness It’s very interesting to observe what happens to any sensation when mindfulness is brought to it. Just think about doing something like singing, playing sports, or talking in public. When the story arises, begin to label the emotions that pop up, just as you practiced earlier. Mindfulness: A Technique to Deal with Stress • 53 Set your timer for two minutes, close your eyes, notice what happens to a difficult memory as you observe it and then read H on. It’s fascinating to observe the power that mindfulness can have over your sensations. Mindfulness is a technique that I personally have found to be a liberating experience. I have the ability to respond appropriately rather than reacting unconsciously to what arises. Practice There are several things you can do everyday to start practicing mindfulness: 1. For five to ten minutes in the morning and/or in the evening, sit quietly and simply observe the thoughts, emotions and physical sensations that arise. When a negative, or unpleasant event occurs, stop and observe the thoughts, emotions and physical sensations that arise as a consequence of the event. When a happy, or pleasant event occurs, stop and observe the thoughts, emotions and physical sensations that arise as a result of the event. During the day, whenever you can, try to label whatever internal or external sensation comes into your consciousness. This could be, for example, before you eat, brush your teeth, 54 • Mindfulness Medication shave, shower, take a walk, or answer the phone. Whenever a cue occurs, stop and try to be mindful of what you’re thinking, feeling and physically experiencing at that moment. Put Post-it notes up around the house, in your car, or at your place of work to remind you to be mindful. Wouldn’t it be great if you had the means to deal with your stress that was always available, didn’t cost a thing, you could learn very quickly and that worked? Whatever happens in your mind influences your breathing and vice versa…how you breathe affects how you feel. When you’re in a stressful situation you likely contract your muscles, which then restrict your breathing. You may also become so focused on a problem that you may even forget to breathe at all and actually temporarily hold your breath. This can deprive your entire body of oxygen, so your stress-induced tension negatively affects your body down to the last cell. These are just the short-term effects of stress on your body, but over the long term, the muscles around your blood vessels can become so contracted that they can even lead to high blood pressure and heart disease. Therefore, one of the most important tools for managing stress is learning to regulate your breath. The most exciting thing about learning to monitor and control your breathing is that it’s a method of stress reduction that’s there for you to use in any situation…and it works! We all know how to breathe and thank goodness it carries on all day and night without any conscious 55 56 • Mindfulness Medication control. However, just because you breathe automatically, doesn’t mean that you’re doing it in the most effective way and enjoying all of its benefits. You may have developed some unhealthy habits that you’re probably not even aware of, such as shallow and irregular breathing with jerks and pauses.

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It is effective in visualizing tumors discount ezetimibe 10 mg on line, abscesses discount ezetimibe 10 mg, hemorrhage generic ezetimibe 10mg without a prescription, trauma and fractures. The pathological site is localized with three-dimensional coordinates, and high doses of radiation are used to destroy it. Anesthetics are capable of producing a complete or partial loss of feeling and are used Neurological agents are used to relieve or elimi- for surgery. Psychotherapeutic agents alter brain nate pain, suppress seizures, control tremors, and chemistry to treat mental illness. Table 14-4 Drugs Used to Treat Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders This table lists common drug classifications used to treat neurological and psychiatric disorders, their therapeutic actions, and selected generic and trade names. Classification Therapeutic Action Generic and Trade Names Neurological Produce partial or complete loss of sensation, anesthetics with or without loss of consciousness. Since they suppress all reflexes including coughing, and swallowing, breathing tubes are usually required. Pharmacology 451 Table 14-4 Drugs Used to Treat Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders—cont’d Classification Therapeutic Action Generic and Trade Names local Act upon nerves or nerve tracts to affect a procaine local area only. Complete each activity and review your answers to evaluate your understanding of the chapter. Learning Activity 14-1 Identifying Structures of the Brain Label the following illustration using the terms listed below. Enhance your study and reinforcement of word elements with the power of DavisPlus. We recommend you complete the flash-card activity before completing activity 14–2 below. Alzheimer disease bulimia nervosa Guillain-Barré multiple sclerosis phobias syndrome aphasia clonic phase myelomeningocele poliomyelitis hemiparesis autism concussion paraplegia radiculopathy ischemic stroke bipolar disorder epilepsies Parkinson disease shingles lethargy 1. Correct Answers 5 % Score Learning Activities 457 Learning Activity 14-4 Matching Procedures, Pharmacology, and Abbreviations Match the following terms with the definitions in the numbered list. Complete the termi- nology and analysis sections for each activity to help you recognize and understand terms related to the nervous system. Medical Record Activity 14-1 Discharge Summary: Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Terminology Terms listed below come from Discharge Summary: Subarachnoid Hemorrhage that follows. Use a medical dictionary such as Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, the appendices of this book, or other resources to define each term. Then review the pronunciations for each term and practice by reading the medical record aloud. On 7/7/xx, she had sudden worsening of her headache, associated with nausea and vomiting. The patient was advised that she should undergo no activity more vigorous than walking. Medical Record Activity 14-2 Consultation Report: Acute Onset Paraplegia Terminology Terms listed below come from Consultation Report: Acute Onset Paraplegia that follows. Use a medical dictionary such as Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, the appendices of this book, or other resources to define each term. Then review the pronunciations for each term and practice by reading the medical record aloud. The patient had a subarachnoid catheter placement for pain control and management on 7/28/xx, at the L10–11 level. This was followed by trials of clonidine for hypertension and methadone for pain control, with bladder retention noted after clonidine administration. Upon catheter removal, the patient noted the subacute onset of paresis, paresthesias, and pain in the legs approxi- 1 mately 2 ⁄2 to 3 hours later. Differential diagnoses include a subarachnoid hemorrhage, epidural abscess, and transverse myelitis. What was the original cause of the patient’s current problems and what treatments were provided? Eye • Recognize, pronounce, spell, and build words related Fibrous Tunic to the special senses. Vascular Tunic • Describe pathological conditions, diagnostic and Sensory Tunic therapeutic procedures, and other terms related to Other Structures Ear the special senses. Hearing • Explain pharmacology related to the treatment of Equilibrium eye and ear disorders. Medical Word Elements • Demonstrate your knowledge of this chapter Pathology by completing the learning and medical record Eye Disorders activities. Specific sensations include smell Eye (olfaction), taste (gustation), vision, hearing (audi- tion), and equilibrium. Each specific sensation is The eye is a globe-shaped organ composed of connected to a specific organ or structure in the three distinct tunics, or layers: the fibrous tunic, body. Pronunciation Help Long Sound a—rate ¯ e—rebirth¯ ¯ı—isle o—over ¯ u—unite¯ Short Sound a—alone˘ e—ever ˘ ˘ı—it o—not˘ u—cut˘ Anatomy and Physiology 467 (4) Choroid (10) Retina (1) Sclera (5) Iris (2) Cornea (11) Fovea (in macula) Retinal artery and vein (7) Pupil (12) Optic nerve (8) Lens (13) Optic disc (15) Anterior chamber (17) Vitreous chamber (14) Posterior chamber Inferior rectus muscle (16) Canal of Schlemm (9) Suspensory ligament (3) Conjunctiva (6) Ciliary body Figure 15-1. Fibrous Tunic choroid allows the optic nerve to enter the inside of The outermost layer of the eyeball, the fibrous the eyeball. The anterior portion of the choroid tunic, serves as a protective coat for the more sen- contains two modified structures, the (5) iris and sitive structures beneath. The sclera, or “white of the tile membrane whose perforated center is called the eye,” provides strength, shape, and structure to the (7) pupil. As the sclera passes in front of the eye, it passing through the pupil to the interior of the eye.

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But today 10 mg ezetimibe otc, as an adult purchase ezetimibe 10mg fast delivery, her perfectionistic life-lens causes her anxiety generic ezetimibe 10 mg with visa, stress, and even depression when she fails. Hannah completes the Then and Now Exercise in Worksheet 7-12 in order to help her under- stand how her past experiences cause her to overreact to current triggers. Worksheet 7-12 Hannah’s Then and Now Exercise Problematic Life-Lens Childhood Image(s) Current Triggers Perfectionistic: My mother would scream If I get a snag or a run in I feel like I must do at me if I got my clothes my hose, I freak. My father was never I can’t stand being satisfied with anything but evaluated at work. Both of my parents always I judge everything talked about other people I do — my hair, my critically. Tragically, one beautiful fall day a highly disturbed classmate brought a gun to school and shot three students. Subsequently, Adam suffered from nightmares, experienced intrusive images of the event, and was easily startled. His vulnerable life-lens is activated by events only superficially similar to the original trauma. Adam completes the Then and Now Exercise in Worksheet 7-13 in order to help him understand how his past experiences contribute to his current responses. Chapter 7: Correcting Your Life-Lenses: A New Vision 109 Worksheet 7-13 Adam’s Then and Now Exercise Problematic Life-Lens Childhood Image(s) Current Triggers Vulnerable: I’m The image of a gun When someone suddenly scared. The pointing at me is burned cuts me off in traffic, I feel world feels very deeply into my brain. Take some time to fill out the Then and Now Exercise (see Worksheet 7-14) for each problematic life-lens that you identified in Worksheet 7-1 earlier in this chap- ter. Whenever one of your problematic life-lenses is activated, refer back to this form in order to remind yourself that your feelings and reactions today have more to do with yesteryear than with your current reality. In the left-hand column, write down one of the problematic life-lenses that you rated as 3 or above on your Problematic Life-Lens Questionnaire (see Worksheet 7-1). Also include a brief definition of the life-lens based on your reflections from Worksheet 7-2. Reflect on your childhood and, in the middle column, record any memories or images that probably had something to do with the development of your life-lens. Be on the lookout for events that trigger your life-lens, and write those events down in the right-hand column as they occur. Because each lens often has multiple images and a variety of triggers, you should fill out a sep- arate form for each problematic life-lens. And whenever your problematic life-lens is triggered, review this Then and Now Exercise as a reminder of what your reaction is actually all about. For almost any problematic life-lens, you need to employ an array of strategies in order to feel significant benefit. Don’t expect a single exercise to “cure” you, and always consider professional help if your own efforts don’t take you far enough. After you complete the exercise, take some time to reflect on what you’ve learned about yourself and your feelings, and record your reflections in Worksheet 7-15. Worksheet 7-15 My Reflections Tallying up costs and benefits of current life-lenses The process of changing life-lenses stirs up some anxiety in most people. That’s because people believe (whether consciously or unconsciously) that life-lenses either protect or benefit them in some important ways. For example, if you have a vulnerable life-lens, you probably think that seeing the world as dangerous helps you avoid harm. Or if you possess a dependency life-lens, you likely think that it guides you to find the help from others that you truly need. Only when you fully believe that your life- lenses cause you more harm than good do you have the motivation to change them. Cameron rarely sets limits on himself or others and doesn’t think he should have to. His high intelligence and easy-going personality have enabled him to get by — until recently. Hangovers often cause him to miss classes, and his grades, pre- viously hovering just above passing, sink into the failure zone. Alarmed, his parents encourage him to see someone at the Student Mental Health Center. After discovering that Cameron looks through an under-control life-lens, his therapist suggests that he fill out a Cost/Benefit Analysis of his life-lens. Because patients often downplay the benefits of their life-lenses when they’re in therapy, his therapist suggests that he first ponder the advantages of his life-lens (see Worksheet 7-16). Chapter 7: Correcting Your Life-Lenses: A New Vision 111 Worksheet 7-16 Cameron’s Cost/Benefit Analysis (Part I) Life-Lens: Under-control. Cameron doesn’t have much trouble figuring out benefits for his problematic life-lens. However, his therapist urges him to carefully consider any negative consequences, or costs, of his under-control life-lens. I don’t have to be a slave to rules When I didn’t follow the rules about drinking and to what people tell me to do. My friends know that I say what I know I’ve hurt some good friends by what I think and that I’m honest. I like showing how I feel no It’s not always smart to express everything I matter what. I used to think they were just boring, but I see that, in some ways, they seem happier than I am. As Cameron wraps up his Cost/Benefit Analysis, he comes to a realization: “My under-control life-lens is ruining my life! A Cost/Benefit Analysis helps you boost your motivation to regrind problematic life-lenses.