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Canned seedless poration by reference is given in para- grapes is the food prepared from one of graph (b)(1)(i) of this section purchase 0.5mg prandin mastercard. Without the fresh or previously canned optional shifting the material on the sieve so in- grape ingredients specified in para- cline the sieve as to facilitate drain- graph (b) of this section which may be age generic prandin 2 mg fast delivery. Two minutes from the time drain- packed in one of the optional packing age begins prandin 1mg with amex, weigh the sieve and drained media specified in paragraph (c) of this fruit. Such food may also contain weight of the sieve, shall be considered one, or any combination of two or to be the total weight of drained fruit. For fruit cocktail is the food which con- the purposes of paragraph (d) of this forms to the definition and standard of section, the names of such optional identity prescribed for canned fruit grape ingredients are "light seedless cocktail by §145. Such packing medium packing media referred to in paragraph may be thickened with pectin and may (a) of this section, as defined in §145. Such packing media may be used as (b)(1) The specified name of the food such or any one or any combination of is "artificially sweetened fruit cock- two or more safe and suitable nutritive tail". If the packing medium is established in part 168 of this chapter thickened with pectin, the label shall shall comply with such standard in lieu bear the statement "thickened with of any definition that may appear in pectin". When the liquid portion of the percent, the medium shall be des- packing media provided for in para- ignated as "light sirup"; "lightly graphs (c) (1) and (2) of this section sweetened fruit juice(s) and water"; or consists of fruit juice(s), such juice(s) "lightly sweetened fruit juice(s)", as shall be designated in the packing me- the case may be. Each of the in- (2) The color type and style of the gredients used in the food shall be de- grape ingredient as provided in para- clared on the label as required by the graph (b) of this section and the name applicable sections of parts 101 and 130 of the packing medium specified in of this chapter. Such food may (a)(1) of this section are: also contain one or more of the fol- (a) Water. The optional grapefruit ingredients referred As used in paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this to in paragraph (a)(1) of this section section, the optional packing medium are prepared from sound, mature grape- "water" means, in addition to water, fruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) of the any mixture of water and grapefruit color types white—produced from juice in which there is less than 50 per- white-fleshed grapefruit, and pink— cent grapefruit juice; the optional produced from pink or red-fleshed packing medium "grapefruit juice and grapefruit and are in the following water" means the liquid packing me- forms of units: Whole sections or bro- dium in which juice of mature grape- ken sections. Each such form of units fruit and water are combined as a liq- or a mixture of such forms of units pre- uid packing medium with not less than pared from a single varietal group 50 percent grapefruit juice and the (color type) is an optional grapefruit term "grapefruit juice" means single ingredient. The core, seeds, and major strength expressed juice of sound, ma- portions of membrane of such ingre- ture fruit. However, if it this section, a grapefruit section is is made from concentrate, the juice considered whole when the unit is in- shall be reconstituted with water to tact or an intact portion of such unit is not less than the soluble solids the not less than 75 percent of its apparent grapefruit juice had before concentra- original size and is not excessively tion. Grapefruit juice and water are the drained weight of the food consists the liquid ingredients from which the of whole sections. I (4–1–10 Edition) paragraph (a)(3)(i) (j) to (l) of this sec- lower category or 2 percent by weight tion are prepared. If one or more liquid sucrose (degrees Brix) lower if no lower nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners and category exists. Whenever the word after the grapefruit are canned or the "sirup" is used, it may be alternatively blended homogenized slurry of the spelled "syrup". A seed is (a)(3)(i) (f), (i), and (l) of this section: considered a developed seed when it Eighteen percent or more. The total number 1n=number of primary containers in sample of sample units drawn for examination 2c=acceptance number from a lot. A container, the en- falls below the standard prescribed in tire contents of a container, a portion paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the of the contents of a container, or a label shall bear the general statement composite mixture of product from of substandard quality specified in small containers that is sufficient for §130. Any sample unit shall be fruit falls below standard with respect regarded as defective when any of the to only one of the factors of quality defects or conditions specified in the specified by paragraph (b)(1) (i), (ii), or quality standard (paragraph (b)(1) of (iii) of this section, there may be sub- this section) and paragraph (c)(3)(i) of stituted for the second line of such gen- this section for minimum fill of con- eral statement of substandard quality, tainer are present in excess of the stat- "Good Food—Not High Grade", a new ed tolerances. The maximum responding designation of paragraph number of defective sample units per- mitted in the sample in order to con- (b)(1) of this section which the canned sider the lot as meeting the specified grapefruit fail to meet: requirements. Canned tents evenly over the meshes of a cir- peaches is the food prepared from one cular sieve which has previously been of the fresh, frozen, or previously weighed. Two minutes more than 1 peach pit to each 227 after the drainage begins, weigh the grams (8 ounces) of finished canned sieve and drained grapefruit. Such food is sealed in a con- section shall be considered a "defec- tainer and before or after sealing is so tive". The food will be deemed to fall processed by heat as to prevent spoil- below the standard of fill when the age. The op- ceptance number (c) in the sampling tional peach ingredients referred to in plans prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of paragraph (a)(1) of this section are pre- this section. Brix) as determined by the procedure (c) Red—the varietal types in which prescribed in §145. I (4–1–10 Edition) section and the name of the packing (iii) Whenever the names of the fruit medium specified in paragraphs (a)(3) juices used do not appear in the name (i) and (ii) of this section, preceded by of the packing medium as provided in "In" or "Packed in" or the words paragraph (a)(4)(ii)(b) of this section, "Solid pack", where applicable, shall such names and the words "from con- be included as part of the name or in centrate", as specified in paragraph close proximity to the name of the (a)(4)(ii)(c) of this section, shall appear food, except that "Halves" may be al- in an ingredient statement pursuant to ternately designated as "Halved", the requirements of §101. Each of the in- "Slices" as "Sliced", and "Dice" as gredients used in the food shall be de- "Diced". Pieces or irregular pieces clared on the label as required by the shall be designated "Pieces", "Irreg- applicable sections of parts 101 and 130 ular pieces", or "Mixed pieces of irreg- of this chapter. The terms ity for canned peaches is as follows: "Cling" and "Free" may be used as op- (i) Maturity. All units tested in ac- tional designations for "Clingstone" cordance with the method prescribed in and "Freestone", respectively. When paragraph (b)(2) of this section are the packing medium is prepared with a pierced by weight of not more than 300 sweetener(s) which imparts a taste, fla- grams (10. In the case of ished food in addition to sweetness, the halves and quarters styles, the weight name of the packing medium shall be of each unit is not less than 17 grams accompanied by the name of such (0. In the case of "lll sirup of brown sugar and whole, halves, and quarters styles, the honey" the blank to be filled in with diameter (width) of the largest unit is the word "light", "heavy", or "extra not more than 1. When the greater than the diameter (width) of liquid portion of the packing media the smallest unit. In containers with provided for in paragraphs (a)(3) (i) and more than 20 units, 2 units may be dis- (ii) of this section consists of fruit regarded in making the determination. In the case of chunky lieu of the word "fruit"; style, not more than 25 percent of the (b) In the case of a combination of drained weight of the contents of the two or more fruit juices, the names of container consists of units that will the juices in the order of predominance pass through an opening 13 millimeters by weight shall either be used in lieu of (0. Not more than 15 square (a)(4)(iii) of this section; and centimeters aggregate area of peel per (c) In the case of a single fruit juice 1,000 grams (1.

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Each of these implies a somewhat different mode of operation in the detection situation buy prandin 0.5mg with amex. According to the conditioned response theory the critical questions play the role of conditioned stimuli and evoke some "emotional" response with which they have been associated in the past purchase prandin 2 mg fast delivery. It would therefore be expected that questions relating to some fairly traumatic experience would produce especially large reactions buy cheap prandin 0.5mg on-line. If this is the basis of detection, lies about trivial matters would be nearly impossible to detect. Asserting that a barn is a house, for example, would produce little response from the ordinary individual because neither word is connected with any large reaction on his past life. Denying that he took part in a crime might be -161- expected to produce a large reaction on this theory, because the crime probably produced a large "emotional" disturbance when it occurred. On the conditioning principle it would further be expected that the bodily reaction would be somewhat different, according to the kind of past experience the question was connected with. The simple conditioning theory can, however, hardly be the whole explanation of the lying reaction, for in laboratory experiments, such as some of those in the Indiana study, lying about rather trivial matters according to instruction did lead to enough differential reaction to yield a fairly good detection percentage. In fact, percentages of detection were so high as to suggest that lack of too great general stress is favorable to detection. The theory of conflict, following the psychoanalytic lead, would presume that a specially large physiologic disturbance would occur when two incompatible reaction tendencies are aroused at the same time. Whether there is a greater disturbance than the sum of the two separate excitations is questionable (3), but at any rate the two would be greater than one. Long habit would dispose the person to answer a critical question straightforwardly. On the other hand, when he is lying there are circumstances which arouse in him the tendency to denial. In the Indiana studies one experiment was based explicitly on this principle, but with the plan of distinguishing the two response tendencies by different sorts of muscular activity. The experiment gave good results, but not because it was possible to distinguish the two reaction tendencies. A better plan might have been to associate a "yes" answer with one hand and a "no" answer with the other. The purpose may be served, however, if the two response tendencies merely summate in the same place, and this could well be the mechanism by which the usual detection test works. On the conflict hypothesis, both reaction tendencies would probably need to be strong for good results. This suggestion again leads to a paradoxical recommendation: the situation must be so ordered that S makes a strong effort to conceal the infor- -162- mation. This strategy, opposite to that which might encourage admissions, may in fact be favorable to instrumental detection. The experiment, already described, which showed better detection when S was encouraged to think he might "beat the instrument" lends itself to this interpretation. If conflict is the basis of the large reactions that signify deception, then there is some danger of confusion with large reactions produced by strictly personal emotional problems. It is an established fact (see the preceding) that words touching on emotionally sensitized areas will produce large reactions, regardless of deception. A question touching on such an area might provoke a reaction greater than that produced by a mild conflict. A third possible basis of detection is the punishment, or better, threat-of-punishment principle. According to this idea a person will give a large physiologic response during lying because he anticipates serious consequences if he fails to deceive. In common language it might be that he fails to deceive the machine operator for the very reason that he fears he will fail. The physiologic reaction would be the consequence of an avoidance reaction which has a low probability of reinforcement, but not too low. If the theory has any validity at all it must be supposed that the physiologic reaction is associated with a state of uncertainty. It does seem that a lie told with a complete certainty of its acceptance would be unlikely to produce much reaction; and on the other hand we have the experimental evidence already mentioned that a lie told with no prospect of success whatever is also poorly detected. For good detection a situation may be necessary where S is willing to gamble on a rather long chance with some hope of success. To make this punishment theory cover the experimental results one needs to take "punishment" in a broad sense, since in experiments S quite often suffers no serious loss if he is detected. He does, nevertheless, lose the game which he is playing and possibly this is -163- countable as a punishment. Once again there seems to be all opposition between procedures designed to secure information and those that would lead to the best instrumental detection. Present knowledge is not sufficient to lead to a decision on which, if any, of these three theories is correct. Since the theories here discussed are not mutually contradictory, it is quite possible that all the conditions referred to are actually operative in some degree in the detection situation. In that event detection would be best when critical questions are associated with somewhat traumatic past events, when S is threatened with possible but not certain punishment as a result of lying, and when critical questions, perhaps by reason of the uncertain consequences, arouse conflicting reactions in S. Although direct, practical experience is lacking, some general findings of laboratory experiments are applicable. The relevance of many of the experiments for the criminal detection problem suffers from the fact that they involved no "crime. From their success, we may conclude that crime is not essential for lie detection. Studies directed specifically to these distinctive problems would be required for more reliable conclusions regarding the applicability of findings from previous experimentation to practical employments in intelligence interrogations.

Exhaust Collector electrode Detector Electrode housing Polarization leads Flame jet Hydrogen Air Column effluent Figure 29 buy prandin 2 mg without a prescription. However buy prandin 1 mg without a prescription, this valuable detector needs to be handled with a lot of skill and expertise so as to achieve wonderful and dependable results cheap 2 mg prandin otc. These heavy-negative-ions will have less mobility as compared to the electrons ; therefore, they will have no other coice than to unite with positive ions. Thus, the net result would be fewer ions and electrons available to migrate to the electrodes, thereby causing a marked and pronounced reduction in the standing current of the detector. Ultimately, this observed current decrease represent as the ‘signal’ of the electron capture detector. The metal block of the detector housing itself serves as a cathode, whereas an electrode polarizing lead suitably positioned in the centre of the detector housing caters for a collector electrode (anode). The radioactive source from a beta-emitter is introduced from either sides of the detector housing below the electrode polarizing lead. The column-effluent is passed into the detector from the bottom whereas its exhaust goes out from the top. Exhaust Detector Collector housing electrode (cathode) (Anode) Electrode polarization leads Radio Radio active active source source Column effluent Figure 29. It may also be invariably termed as a nitrogen detector, a sulphur detector, a phophorus detector, and a halogen detector by virtue of the fact that its specificity in detecting organic compounds essentially containing these elements. If P- or S-containing hydrocarbons are ignited in a hydrogen-rich flame, it gives rise to chemiluminescent species spontaneously which may subsequently be detected by a suitably photomultiplier device. Two-charged electrodes serve as an electric field in the detector, the cathode becoming the collector electrode for the ions. The ion-current thus generated, that will be directly proportional to the ion concentration, then becomes the signal of the detector. Most frequently, a recorder of 1-10 mV full-scale deflection (~_ 10 inches) and having a response time 1 second or less is quite adequate. Essentially in a potentiometric recorder, the input signal is balanced continuously by a feedback signal making use of a servomechanism ; whereby a pen strategically connected to this system moves proportionally along the width of the chart paper, thus recording the signal, whereas simultaneously the chart paper keeps moving at a constant speed along its length. It carries a pen that writes along a span of about one inch, reserved for integrator on the recorder chart paper at the end. The zero line of the integrator moves almost parallel to the base line of the chromatogram and as soon as a peak appears on the recorder, the integrator-pen starts moving from right to left the vice-versa within its one-inch strip. Each one- inch traverse (counted along projection parallel to signal axis) is usually assigned a value of 100 counts ; the total number of counts corresponding to a peak are directly proportional to the area of the peak. The type of mechanical integrator* affords fairly good accuracy and precision ; and above all it is quite cheap. The main advantages of an electronic integrator are, namely : (i) Provides a much wider linear range, (ii) Changing the ‘attenuation’ is not required, and (iii) Offers highest precision in peak-area measurement. A commercially available*** fairly sophisticated computer system of such type are available abundantly that may be capable of undertaking load upto 100 gas- chromatographs with ample data-storage facilities. Generally, different components possess different response factors, application of which not only com- pensates for different detector response for different components but also take into consideration the other factors inherent with the procedure. However, these factors may be calculated by preparing a synthetic mixture absolutely identical to what is expected in the sample, and subsequently carrying out the gas-chromatography of this mixture exactly under idential experimental parameters as described in the method of analysis. In certain instances, like petroleum fractions, where it may be possible to assume that most of the components possess almost equal response factors, the area normalization formula in Eq. Graphical Approach : Many a times a ‘graphical approach’ as illustrated in Figure 29. In fact, the very purpose of this synthetic-blends is only to simulate a typical sample. Now, exactly equal (or known) amounts of both, the ‘synthetic blend’ and the ‘sample’are separately injected and chromatograms obtained. Thus, by actually comparing the areas of the desired component in both the chromatograms, the ‘unknown concentration’ may be determined by the following expression : A %X = (% X in synthetic blend) A′X where, A′X = Peak area of component X in the chromatogram of ‘synthetic blend’. However, this method is less accurate in comparison to the first two methods described earlier for quantitative analysis. It should be used judiciously if only a few components present in small concentration (i. Obviously, this part of analyis is as vital and critical as the gas chromatorgraphic part of analysis. Procedure : After having maintained the above mentioned experimental conditions for gas chromatog- raphy inject 2µl of solutions (1) through (4) sequentially. Observations : The assay is not valid unless the chromatogram obtained with solution (4) shows two principal peaks with a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 5. Calculations : Calculate the content of cetylalcohol and of stearyl alcohol from the chromatogram thus obtained with solution (1) by normalization. Identify the peaks by visual comparison with the chromatograms obtained with solutions (2) and (3) respectively. Cognate Assays A few other drugs can also be assayed by the same procedure and are stated below in Table 29. Determination of N, N-dimethylaniline in Cephalexin Materials Required : Cephalexin sample : 1. Calculations : From the value obtained calculate the content of N, N-dimethylaniline present in the given sample of cephalexin.