By P. Oelk. East Tennessee State University.
Men in the latter group are important to recognize as treatment aimed at addressing the perceived hair problem is unlikely to be successful cheap forzest 20 mg fast delivery. A number of studies have shown that male balding has an adverse effect on quality of life (though this is almost inevitable in those seeking professional advice) (43) 20 mg forzest sale. Nevertheless forzest 20 mg without a prescription, balding is often seen as a trivial issue (mainly by non-sufferers) which may make men reluctant to approach their physician as they perceive, rightly or wrongly, that they will not receive a sympathetic response. In contrast to the pre- vailing attitude to male balding, however, society generally regards it as abnormal for women to lose their hair. Consequently the adverse effect of balding on quality of life tends be more severe in women than in men. In quality-of-life studies, individual responses were more related to self-percep- tion of hair loss than to objective or clinical ratings and those women most distressed by hair loss were more poorly adjusted and had a greater investment in their appearance (44,45). The physician needs to be alert and sensitive to these issues and needs counseling and psychothera- peutic skills that go beyond merely prescribing treatment. Diagnosis The diagnosis of androgenetic alopecia in men rarely causes difculties. In cases presenting with general thinning, other causes of diffuse hair loss should be considered, particularly when the hair loss progresses quickly. This situation is perhaps most likely to be seen in teenage boys brought along by worried parents. The diagnosis of female androgenetic alopecia may be more challenging although it can usually be made on clinical grounds. Rapidly progressive hair loss with a strongly positive tug test should raise the possibility of diffuse alopecia areata. Loss of body hair, eyebrows, or eyelashes, and nail changes will support the diagnosis but it is sometimes necessary to obtain histology. Other causes of diffuse hair loss include systemic lupus erythematosus and thyroid disease and the relevant investigations should be performed where indicated by the overall clinical picture. Occasionally, scarring alopecia presents in a diffuse pattern and here a biopsy will usually be necessary. The most common clinical dilemma is the diagnosis of women pre- senting with chronic excessive hair shedding in whom hair density appears normal, often referred to as chronic telogen efuvium. If known causes of telogen efuvium are excluded, about 60% of these women show histological evidence of early androgenetic alopecia on biopsy (46). The cause of increased hair shedding in the remaining 40% is usually obscure, although it may simply be due to age-related shortening of the hair cycle. It should also be remembered that androgenetic alopecia may be a sign of hyperandrogen- ism. Investigations are unnecessary in women with typical androgenetic alopecia and no other evidence of androgen excess, although most authorities recommend checking a full blood count, serum ferritin and thyroid function. In the author s experience, abnormalities of thyroid func- tion are not particularly common in women presenting with diffuse hair loss, possibly no more Androgenetic Alopecia 111 common than in the population at large, but formal data are lacking. The most important cause, albeit rare, is an androgen-secreting ovarian or adrenal tumor. A serum testosterone is a useful screening test; a level in excess of 5nmol/l should prompt further endocrinologic investigation. For all groups counseling should include an explanation of the nature of the condition and its natural history. For those interested in preventing further progression or improving their hair status, the treatment options, together with a realistic explanation of what can be achieved by treatment, will also need to be discussed. For those with a body dysmorphic disorder involvement of a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist should be explored. Hair loss is an emotional issue and sufferers are vulnerable to exploitation by the unscrupulous. Patients should be advised against parting with large sums of money on unproven and valueless remedies. Treatment Men At present only two medical treatments, minoxidil and nasteride are licensed for the treat- ment of male balding. Both drugs will stimulate some regrowth of hair in some men but are perhaps better regarded as preventative treatments. Neither will regrow hair on completely bald scalp and continued treatment is necessary to maintain the response. Both drugs have a good safety record, a consideration of paramount importance when treating hair-growth disor- ders. Minoxidil Minoxidil was licensed as an oral drug to treat hypertension in the early 1970s. It soon became apparent that a high proportion of those taking minoxidil tablets developed signicant hypertri- chosis, a side effect that has almost eliminated its use as an anti-hypertensive agent. Following a report of increased hair growth on the scalp of a balding man taking minoxidil tablets (47), extem- poraneous formulations of minoxidil solution were developed for topical application in the treat- ment of hair loss (initial reports concentrated mainly on alopecia areata). Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of male balding and marketed by the Upjohn Company in 1986. The rapid response of hair growth to minoxidil suggests that the drug acts mainly to promote entry into anagen of fol- licles in a latent stage of the hair cycle. There is no convincing evidence that minoxidil reverses follicular miniaturization although it may prevent or delay it.
Mineral and/or milk sup plementation of fruit beverages helps in the prevention of H202-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells purchase forzest 20mg visa. Caseinophosphopep tides exert partial and site-specific cytoprotection against H202-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells order 20mg forzest visa. Tryptophan from human milk induces oxidative stress and upregulates Nrf-2-mediated stress re sponse in human intestinal cell lines generic forzest 20 mg with visa. Antioxidative and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory potential of Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) fish protein hydrolysate subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion and Caco-2 cell permeation. Antioxidant properties of breast milk in a novel in vitro digestion/enterocyte model. Colon-available raspberry polyphenols exhibit anti-cancer effects on in vitro models of colon cancer. Identification of hen egg yolk-de rived phosvition phosphopeptides and their effects on gene expression profiling against oxidative-stress induced Caco-2 cells. An investigation of the relationship between the anti-inflammatory activity, polyphenolic content, and anti oxidant activities of cooked and in vitro digested culinary herbs. Butyrate is only one of several growth inhibitors produced during gut flora-mediated fermentation of diet ary fibre sources. Both wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran arabinoxylans and gut flora-mediated fermentation products protect human colon cells from genotoxic activities of 4-hy droxynonenal and hydrogen peroxide. Fermentation products of inulin-type fructans reduce proliferation and induce apoptosis in human colon tu mour cells of different stages of carcinogenesis. Chemopreventive effects of in vitro digested and fer mented bread in human colon cells. Fermentation of resistant starches: influence of in vitro models on colon carcinogenesis. Epidemiology of chronic degenerative diseases in Mexico and the world During the last 30 years relevant changes in the public health field have arisen worldwide, among which the most representative are observed in developed countries where a big deal of infectious diseases have been reduced and controlled as a result of the creation and intro duction of powerful antibiotics . Those re ductions have been the result of social changes and of the improvement of preventive methods of infectious diseases. However, in recent years the prevalence of chronic degen erative diseases has increased . Mexico does not escape this situation as a result of specific factors to our country such as economic development, concentration of population in urban areas, lack of support to im prove the health services and the limitations in preventive programs, particularly in the population under 10 years. Besides, there is a transformation of the population pyramid due to a reduction in mortality and a decrease in birth rate; both phenomena are identi fied as epidemiologic and demographic transitions . Although in those reports not all the existing cases are included (not all patients request healthcare services), they are a good help to understand the dam age behavior along with other indicators of prevalence that estimate the number of cases in the population within a specific period of time. Such indicators are obtained from the national healthcare survey and from the national healthcare and nutrition survey 2006 . On the other hand, the mortality statistics are considered as more reliable due to the per manent job in updating the database. As mentioned above, the epidemiological and demographic transitions are important factors for the prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases and indicate changes in the behavior of population dynamics, as well as damage to health which are the result of the low socioeco nomic development and the impact of government policies on public health. The demo graphic transition shows the change in a steady state population with high fertility and mortality associated with the low socioeconomic development process and/or moderniza tion. This process is irreversible and was constructed from the first countries reaching socio- economic development in Europe such as France and England. In the case of the epidemiological transition, this is characterized by a reduction of morbidi ty and mortality from transmissible diseases and an increase in chronic degenerative diseas es. In the specific case of Mexico, it is well-known that infectious diseases made up the profile of mortality in the fifties, since half of the deaths were caused by diarrhea and respiratory infections, for reproductive problems and associated malnutrition conditions. Nowadays, these diseases (classified as lag diseases) are concentrated in less than 15% of deaths . In the last 10 years, there has been an overlap between lag diseases and the so-called emerg ing diseases. Definition, importance and control of oxidative stress The term "oxidative stress" was first introduced in the eighties by Helmut Sies (1985), defin ing it as a disturbance in the prooxidant-oxidant balance in favor of the first. They act as intermediate agents in essential oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions. Some examples are the destruction of microorganisms through phagocytosis, synthesis of inflammatory media tors and detoxification. This highly unstable configuration causes this chemical species to be very aggressive and to have a short life span. Thiol radicals are less important, their reactive group contains sulfur; well as those contain ing carbon or phosphorus in their reactive center. Several antioxidants are enzymes or essential nu trients, or include these in their molecular structure. An essential nutrient is a compound that must be eaten because the organism is unable to synthesize it. Hydrophilic non-enzymatic antioxidants are located mainly in the cytosol, mitochondrial and nuclear matrixes and in extracellular fluids. Different observations suggest that these pathologies could be originated when reactive spe cies are formed and suffer alterations, or when they are eliminated, or both. However, doubt remains, if oxidative stress is the pri mary event that leads to the disease or the oxidative phenomenon is developed throughout the disease .
There is little doubt that hair that is clean order forzest 20 mg with mastercard, conditioned forzest 20 mg on-line, and manageable reects positively on the owner purchase forzest 20mg without prescription. To achieve healthy-looking hair requires the use of surfac- tants that, over time, elute lipids and proteins from the hair. It has long been recognized that regular washing steadily elutes proteinaceous material from the endocuticle, which results in an increase in the number of holes under each cuticle cell toward the tip of the ber (Fig. Regular grooming causes physical damage to the cuticle and hyper-extension of the cortex. However, routine shampooing and combing form an acceptable balance between small nega- tive changes to the ber and large visual benets to both the hairstyle and the owner. Indeed, it is only with the advent of modern shampoo and conditioner formulations that the individual can achieve the desired hair appearance for the days or years that a ber remains on the head. It is only when the more aggressive physical and chemical processes are conducted on the hair that the rate of damage exceeds both the durability of hair and the replacement of bers. In truth they can, by matching the cosmetic damage to the rate of growth and not exceeding the parameters. Permanent Hair Coloring The aim of this section is to look at the changes induced in the hair ber by coloring processes and not the detailed chemistry of hair coloring. However, a brief overview gives a greater understanding of how and why the fundamental structure of the ber is affected. Permanent hair colors result in a change to the natural color of hair that, although subject to fading, will only be completely lost when the hair is cut or re-colored. This class of products also includes products designed to lighten, or bleach, the natural color of hair. To change the natural color of hair the following steps must occur: (i) remove or lighten the natural hair color, i. To achieve the color, low pH hydrogen peroxide (developer) is mixed with high pH dyes (tint). The acti- vated or alkaline hydrogen peroxide both bleaches melanin in the cortex and develops the new colors from the tint. In particular, blonde shades are not simply achieved by bleaching melanin and they require the formation of new dye colors to offset red and brass tones left by the incom- plete degradation of melanin. As alkaline hydrogen peroxide diffuses through the ber it encounters transition metal ions that occur naturally in hair, as well as those acquired from the environment, e. Rapid degradation of peroxide forms the highly damaging and non- specic hydroxyl radical. A fundamental challenge to the colorant formulator is accessing and decolorizing mela- nin that occurs only in the cortex while minimizing damage to the rest of the ber. First, alkaline peroxide must travel through the cuticle and will cause damage en route. Due to the relatively low concentration of melanin in Caucasian hair there is a greater chance that the peroxide will interact with the hair structure and damage the proteins in the cortex than that it will interact with melanin. As a result, permanent hair colors cause measurable damage to the tensile and torsional properties of the hair ber. All unmodied cuticle cells are covered in a covalently bound fatty acid on the outer aspect of the cell. The fatty acid 18-methyl eicosanoic acid, termed the f-layer (4), is readily cleaved by perhydrolysis, which changes the surface of the cell from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. First, when the hair is wet the hair bers are held tightly together by lms of water. Second, many conventional silicone-based conditioners, which are typically hydrophobic in nature, fail to deposit on the hair and as a result provide little or no protection. Fortunately, the level of damage is relatively low and can be managed as is evidenced by the numerous examples of individuals with long hair who have used colorants multiple times. But it is essential for patients to understand that the hair is changed by the coloring process 24 Gummer and, while its appearance is enhanced its properties are altered. Failure of patients to increase conditioning, which will counteract these changes, will lead to rapid weathering and break- age and is often typied by trichorrhexis nodosa. The patient must be encouraged to reduce the frequency of coloring and the amount of styling, while greatly increasing the amount of conditioning. High-Lift Bleaches The peroxide blonde hair color worn by Marilyn Monroe cannot be achieved with hydrogen peroxide alone. The addition of ammonium persulphate, which is usually supplied as a pow- der, is required to completely decolorize melanin and achieve the platinum blonde effect. This process causes damage of a much higher magnitude than conventional permanent colors and hence the degree of haircare must be suitably increased. Permanent colors and high-lift bleaches are biologically aggressive treatments that are well-tolerated by the hair when utilized properly. Problems such as hair breakage and straw- like appearance can result from a lack of understanding of how the hair is changed by these processes. A patient with shoulder-length hair will require treatments once every six to eight weeks. As a result, the ends of the bers will have experienced signicantly more chemical and physical insult compared to the roots. Permanent Changes in Hair Shape Two main practices are involved in permanently changing the shape of individual bers, i. While different chemistry is used by these two processes, both have a similar clinical impact on the ber.
It should always be borne in mind that a patient with an articial eye might have had the when the eye is nearly blind and sym- eye removed because it contained a malignant pathetic ophthalmitis is a risk following a tumour generic forzest 20mg without prescription, in which case one must consider the perforating injury generic forzest 20mg with amex. A well-made articial eye is almost Before having an eye removed forzest 20mg on line, the patient undetectable to the untrained eye but normal must be made fully aware of all the advantages movements of the eye can be restricted. A general anaesthetic is days, the use of orbital prostheses deep to the needed and the patient remains in hospital for conjunctiva and attached to the eye muscles gives one to two nights after the operation. After many years common practice to t the socket with a trans- and after renewing the articial eye on several parent plastic shell for a few weeks until the occasions,the eye can appear to sink downwards. The challenge is therefore great as to how to respond to the vast need for effective partner notification in patients diagnosed in Primary Care. Network methodologies, contact tracing, gonorrhoea, and human immunodeficiency virus. Sexual histories, partnerships and networks associated with the transmission of gonorrhoea. Patterns of Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection in sexual networks in Manitoba, Canada. Partner referral by patients with gonorrhoea and chlamydial infection; case finding observations. Sex Transm Dis 1997; 24:334-43 32 Ramstedt K, Halligen B, Britt-Inger L, Hakansson C. Outcome of contact tracing for Chlamydia trachomatis in a district general hospital. Phase specific strategies for the prevention, control, and elimination of sexually transmitted diseases: background country profile, England and Wales. Partner notification for sexually transmitted diseases: proposed practice guidelines. The role of sexual partnership networks in the epidemiology of gonorrhea, Sex Transm Dis 1997; 24(1):45-56. This chapter describes how health advisers use interview structure and techniques to minimise resistance and encourage participation. It is important that all members of the multidisciplinary team are supportive of partner notification, and that an efficient internal referral system is in place. The health adviser therefore has a role in ensuring that: All staff understand which patients are to be seen by the health adviser All staff understand the rationale, process and importance of partner notification All staff understand their particular role in facilitating the interview Referrals are worded positively ( It will be helpful for you to see the health adviser is better than I m afraid you ve got to see the health adviser. However, if the patient is unlikely to wait after treatment has been given, it may be useful to offer the interview beforehand. Medication can be given at the same time, to streamline care, if the health adviser is approved to dispense. Some index patients are informed of their diagnosis over the telephone when being recalled for treatment. Arranging for the patient and the regular partner to attend on the same day could reduce the risk of re-infection. The patient can be advised of the need to avoid exposure to untreated partners whilst being reassured that they do not need to notify anybody at this stage. Preliminary discussion about who may need to be notified if an infection were found can be a useful preparation for the patient, and can yield valuable information for the health adviser. It is worth remembering that the patient may not return, particularly if he or she has already received medication. In this situation it is much easier to follow-up partner notification issues by telephone when preliminary face-to-face discussions have already taken place. Interpreters may also be necessary if there are language difficulties (see Ch 36: Working with Interpreters. It is also an opportunity to build the trust, goodwill and rapport necessary for co-operation with partner notification. This could make it difficult for the individual to absorb information given by the doctor or nurse at the time. It is important to clarify the patient s understanding early in the interview because subsequent misconceptions may lead to unnecessary anxieties or reduce compliance with treatment. Furthermore, awareness of routes of transmission and incubation periods is necessary to help identify contacts at risk and prevent re-infection. Knowing the serious consequences of untreated infection may encourage co-operation with partner notification. Questioning style The patient s level of understanding can be assessed most effectively by using open questions that encourage the sharing of details, such as: What has already been explained about. This enables the health adviser to pitch further information and discussion at an appropriate level, without mystifying or patronising the patient. Information tailored to the specific needs of the individual is more likely to be taken on board. It is essential to build rapport at this early stage by personalising the discussion and encouraging dialogue: if the health adviser is doing all the talking, and information is given in standardised form, the patient may disengage; this could make it more difficult to involve the patient in discussion about partners. It is also important to avoid overloading a person with more information than is needed, or can be absorbed, at an emotionally stressful time. If difficulties are identified, discuss with the doctor and/or make alternative arrangements. Motivating the patient to take part is therefore the central challenge of the interview.
Suggest alternatives if an acceptable/suitable appointment time cannot be offered order forzest 20mg with mastercard. Document the patient s name cheap forzest 20 mg with mastercard, history discount forzest 20mg without prescription, advice given, and appointments offered and made on a triage proforma and/or in the patient s clinic notes. It may be useful to note the circumstances that influenced the decision, such as the waiting time for the next appointment, the patient s level of anxiety, or the workload in the clinic. The use of agreed guidelines is recommended to ensure decisions are fair and appropriate. Whenever a person is added to an already full clinic list, patients with pre-existing appointments may have to wait longer and staff members are subjected to greater pressure. Few would argue that patients in need of urgent medical attention be turned away, but a decision to give priority on social or epidemiological grounds may be more controversial. In such situations ethical consideration would be given to the balance of justice, benefits and harms for the individual, others patients, staff and the wider community. If he is given preferential treatment he may be more inclined to co-operate with partner notification and encourage associates to use the service. She has no other symptoms, and is not therefore in need of urgent medical attention. The argument for asking her to return for the next available appointment might be that she does not have a right or a need to be seen that day, and it would be unfair to others if the triage protocol were not followed for everybody. On the other hand, it may seem unfair to turn her away when she has made an arduous journey in good faith. Her social circumstances may make it difficult for her to return in the near future, and the opportunity to treat a potential infection could be lost, or delayed. She may be turned away because she does not fit the triage criteria that should, in fairness, apply to all. Some may feel that she does not deserve preferential treatment because she has been uncooperative in the past, and should not receive priority over patients who wait for appointments and keep them, without fuss. There could be a concern that, by seeing her on demand, the service is rewarding bad behaviour and discouraging her from developing a more constructive approach to health services. An alternative view would be that she is disadvantaged by an appointment system because of her poor capacity to organise her life and grasp the rules of service use. If the service is, in effect, less accessible to her than others, there is a sense in which it is fair to make allowances and give her access on the terms she can manage. The only sure way of preventing her from developing complications or transmitting infection to others is to see her straight away. It does not cause serious morbidity if left untreated for a short time, and it is not normally sexually transmitted. However, the unpleasant odour associated with the condition can be embarrassing and distressing. Effective and ethical health care requires a holistic approach, where due consideration is also given to psychological, social and economic needs. She does not have any symptoms, but has had unprotected sex with a 25-year old man who has other regular partners. Firstly, she has been at risk of infection; secondly, she may find it difficult to be absent from home or school without explanation to return at a future time; thirdly, child protection issues need to be explored further. There is also the importance of first impressions, because attending a clinic for the first time requires courage. The apprehension and embarrassment that many patients feel during a first visit may be more acute for the very young. If the girl is turned away she may find it difficult to come back, and may share her unsatisfactory experience with friends, who may also be discouraged from using the service. To use skills to convey complex information and allow patients to explore emotional responses that might obstruct absorbing 2 information or achieving sexual well being. These are: Sexual health is the primary focus of counselling in health advising work The type and level of counselling used depends on patient need Even information giving depends on the use of counselling skills There is a time frame that has to be worked within 104 Counselling, or using counselling skills? All health advisers use counselling skills, which they bring from their respective professional backgrounds, and develop further in their clinical practice. Those with appropriate professional training and supervision are well placed to perform an enhanced role by offering time-limited counselling to suitable patients. Health advising sometimes deploys a specialised form (or a number of specialised forms) of counselling, but always makes use of counselling skills in the support of other aspects of the role. Counselling skills are fundamental There are five core roles of health advising and counselling skills are fundamental to all of them. In the counselling field generally, there is an increased emphasis on time-limited approaches. Some studies suggest that the therapeutic effectiveness of time-limited work is 4 indistinguishable from long-term, or more open-ended, work. Findings included the following: Most significant therapeutic change happens early on in therapy - 62% of patients are 5 helped within 13 sessions Patients are less likely to drop out of therapy or counselling when a time constraint is 6 applied (this is particularly true of younger patients) Therapists estimates exceeded patients of the number of sessions needed by a factor 7 of 3 to 1 8 78% of patients getting only one session thought they had benefited. This is particularly important when evaluating the effectiveness of crisis intervention counselling. Positive changes can continue to be made by the patient after the intervention 106 Applying a time-limited approach to health advising A number of principles need to be borne in mind when doing this kind of work. Health advisers have to prioritise the interventions they can use within the constraints imposed by their workload and clinical setting. Some may have an affinity, and the necessary professional training for doing longer-term work, but it is practically and ethically more important that as many people as possible are to be offered the help they need. Where there is some room for compromise (some flexibility in the length of interventions that health advisers can offer to particular patients), this will help with developing skills, maintaining morale, and targeting particular interventions to meet particular needs.
Because of these well-known side effects of topical steroid use order 20mg forzest free shipping, implementation of sham- poos containing mid or higher strength steroids is particularly appealing as direct contact is shorter and theoretically should be associated with fewer side effects purchase forzest 20 mg visa. Intralesional steroids forzest 20 mg low price, including triamcinolone acetonide or triamcinolone hexaceton- ide are commonly used to treat patients with less than 50% scalp involvement (39). Eyebrow Alopecia Areata 99 regions may also be injected; rarely is this technique used to treat eyelash alopecia areata. In some practices, up to 40 mg will be injected intralesionally per session with sessions spaced apart by 6- to 8-week intervals. To be successful, it is important to inject just below the epidermis where the miniaturized follicles are, not into the fat, as this may lead to atrophy and a poor response. Children and adolescents and some adults may benet from application of a topical anesthetic prior to therapy. Compli- cations include atrophy, which again is reversible if treatment is discontinued. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation is currently sponsoring a clinical trial examining adrenal-gland suppression with this treatment modality. Various dosing regimens have been used successfully and reported in the literature. A six-week tapering dose of oral prednisone beginning at 40 mg/day tapering by 5 mg/day weekly over 4 weeks and then by 5 mg/day every three days resulted in 15 of 32 patients having at least 25% regrowth and 8 of the 15 experiencing more than 75% regrowth (40). An oral monthly pulse of 300 mg prednisolone for a minimum of four doses has also been reported to result in complete or cosmetically accept- able hair regrowth (41). To counter the development of osteoporosis, calcium, vitamin D, or even drugs such as Fosamax [adlendronate sodium (Merck & Co. Patients need to be coached in advance about potential adverse experi- ences and expectations. Patients receiving this therapy need to be on a 2-gram sodium diet, as uid retention may be an adverse experience. Anthralin Anthralin is postulated to target mitochondria and interact with the electron transport chain on the inner mitochondrial membrane, ultimately resulting in a decrease in adenosine triphophos- phate synthesis. However, just as with minoxidil, the use of this drug in published studied has not fullled the criteria of evidence-based treatment described earlier (31). Although complete hair regrowth has been achieved with 50 to 80 treatment sessions, averaging three per week, hair loss is commonly seen following discontinuation (47). Signi- cant hair regrowth was not demonstrated in any of the treated subjects after 8 to 24 weeks of treatment with 50 mg of etanercept given subcutaneously twice weekly (53). A clinical trial supported by the National Alopecia Areata Foundation with the bio- logic alefacept (Amevive, Astellas Pharma U. This biologic is known to kill activated memory T cells, reversibly lowering the T-cell count. This was a 6-week study examining a tapering dose of oral prednisone (starting at 40 mg/day) followed by 2% topical minoxidil applied daily for up to 14 weeks. In this study, patients applied 5% topical minoxidil twice daily, followed 30 minutes later by 0. In this study, patients applied 1 mL 5% topical minoxi- dil twice daily, followed by an overnight application of anthralin. Anthralin was applied two hours after the evening application of topical minoxidil. Patients received oral prednisone at 10 to 20 mg/day; methotrexate was given at an initial weekly dose of 15 mg, 20 mg or 25 mg. Results: Sixty-four percent achieved a total recovery including 3 of 6 patients treated with methotrexate alone and 11 of 16 who had combined treatment. Some, such as tacrolimus, nitrogen mus- tard and cyclosporine, were tested in small numbers of human subjects based on their success in rodent animal models (59 61). No terminal hair growth was seen in response to this drug and the investigators postulated one reason for this poor response could be related to insufcient depth of penetration of the oint- ment formulation. In a bilateral com- parison 16-week study of topical nitrogen mustard, a benet was seen in one of six patients; four did not complete the trial. Thalidomide has been suggested as a potential treatment but its controversial history makes it a difcult to conduct experimental trials (66). Glatiramer acetate, a drug that is growing in popularity in treating multiple sclerosis and one which induces a shift of the cytokine prole from Th1 to Th2 cells has also been suggested (67). Initial screenings are being done that utilize compounds that have had known positive responses based on route of administration. The goal is to target compounds that will be tested for up to 16 weeks and then advanced to human studies based on the results. Alopecia Areata Registry The Alopecia Areata Registry was established with grant support from the National Institutes of Health s Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. This is done by simply completing a form and requesting approval by the steering committee. Current investigations using registry samples include a genetic linkage project, a candidate gene search, and a cytokine proling study. In the interim, efforts continue to increase minority participation as well as increasing the number of multiplex families, affected children, and controls. It is possible that early treatment of symptoms may be associated with decreased or minimal hair loss. The authors preference is to use a shampoo containing a mid- or high-potency steroid or a steroid foam preparation. If scalp dermatitis is present, this should be treated with anti-seborrheic shampoos as there is no need to have two types of scalp inammation.