By V. Pavel. University of Sioux Falls. 2018.
Young adults’ perceptions of living with families: Theory/research/education/practice (pp discount effexor xr 75mg amex. Health promotion in youth with chronic ill- methodologic framework to study nurse patient communica- ness: Are we on the right track? Advances Journal of Obstetric buy effexor xr 150mg low cost, Gynecologic purchase effexor xr 75mg overnight delivery, and Neonatal Nursing, in Nursing Science, 12(1), 67–75. Advancing King’s systems plore family health in the families of the young chronically framework and theory of nursing. King’s theory between registered nurses and family members of critically as foundation for an advanced directive decision-making ill patients in intensive care and neonatal intensive care model. Nursing models and community as behaviors: Nurse educators and clinical nurse specialists de- client... Use of King’s theory of goal attainment to systems framework and theory of goal attainment promote adolescents’health behavior. Nursing Science Quarterly, study of a psychotic client with human immunodeﬁciency 4, 14–20. Using King’s interacting systems frame- to professional nursing care: Instrument development. Journal of Multicultural Nursing & oping or revising a baccalaureate nursing program. A theory of goal attainment: Systems, concepts, isfaction with nursing care of patients with ostomies. Effectiveness of nursing care: Use of a goal Academy of Nursing Education, 1(1), 30–31. King’s theory of goal Association of Nephrology Nurses and Technicians Journal, attainment applied in group therapy for inpatient juvenile of- 11(2), 11–17, 60. Philosophy of nursing education: A national Advancing King’s systems framework and theory of nursing survey. New York: Recovering from stroke: A qualitative investigation of the role National League for Nursing. Nursing ory of dynamic interacting systems to the study of child abuse Science Quarterly, 7, 29. Nursing informatics: A universal nursing King’s systems framework and theory of nursing (pp. Revista Latino-Americana de situations in nursing interpreted by concepts from King’s Enfermagem, 10(1), 97–103. A study of nurse patient interaction in a high frameworks and community as client: Bridging the gap dependency unit. Perceived needs of parents of critically ill veloping or revising a baccalaureate nursing program. A pro- personal system concepts within the King’s systems frame- gram plan addressing carpal tunnel syndrome: The utility of work to explore perceived health status during the menopause King’s goal attainment theory. Deﬁning the health of a social system ties of newly employed nurses at the University Hospital, within Imogene King’s framework. Medical and nursing students’ perceptions of the actualized power of a nursing department. Measuring nursing power within organiza- Canadian Operating Room Nursing, 12(2), 15–16, 18–19. The development of a conceptual model for models of nursing: Some mental health care applications. The nurse’s role in giving pre-operative ing perspective: Moving beyond borrowed theory. Archives of information to reduce anxiety in patients admitted to hospi- Psychiatric Nursing, 15(3), 140–147. Theory implementation: A challenging jour- families with high-risk infants: Challenges for the future. Canadian Journal of Nursing Administration, 4(1), Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing, 4(4), 71–77. Family health as derived from King’s tainment: Resolving ﬁlial caregiver role strain. Strengthening patient- Council for Nursing Research’s 1998 Pre-Convention provider relationships. Lippincott’s Case Management, 7(3), Research Utilization Conference, Evidence-based Practice, 86–102. Application of King’s theory of goal attain- ory—Application in emergency and rural nursing. The these premature epitaphs and notes that her best latter is a critical analysis of the 25 years of model- work is yet to come. Roy often em- based literature, which includes 163 studies phasizes her primary commitment to deﬁne and published in 46 English-speaking journals, disser- develop nursing knowledge and regards her work tations, and theses. This project was completed by with the Roy Adaptation Model as one rich source the Boston-Based Adaptation Research Society in of knowledge for clinical nursing. Roy in the interest of advancing nursing based concept of adaptation based on insights practice by developing basic and clinical nursing related to the place of the person in the universe. Roy’s major recent activities was cosmic philosophical and scientiﬁc assumptions, cochairing the annual Knowledge Conferences will become the basis for developing knowledge hosted by the Boston College School of Nursing be- that will make nursing a major social force in the tween 1996 and 2001, which developed into a book century to come. Being a teacher and a mentor to and professional growth as her family, her religious doctoral students in nursing is another role that she commitment, and her teachers and mentors. Roy has been a nurse and instilled the values of always seeking to major speaker on topics related to nursing theory, know more about people and their care, and of self- research, curriculum, clinical practice, and profes- less giving as a nurse. Roy has played a major role in at least 35 as a maid, and ﬁnally as a nurse’s aid. Her college education began on nursing knowledge have appeared in Image: with a bachelor of arts degree with a major in nurs- Journal of Nursing Scholarship, Nursing Science ing at Mount St.
New concepts with power have been found with anxiety trusted 75 mg effexor xr, chronic that describe unitary phenomena may be devel- pain buy 150 mg effexor xr, personal distress cheap effexor xr 150mg amex, and hopelessness (Caroselli oped through research. For example, the metaphor (Butcher, 2002b), caring (Smith, 1999), and energy “I feel at one with the universe” reﬂects a high de- (Leddy, 2003; Todaro-Franceschi, 1999) are exam- gree of awareness of integrality; “I feel like a worn- ples of concepts that have been reconceptualizied in out shoe” reﬂects a more restricted perception of one’s potential (Johnston, 1994; Watson et al. Future research may focus on developing an Researchers need to ensure that concepts understanding of how human ﬁeld image changes and measurement tools used in the inquiry in a variety of health-related situations or how are deﬁned and conceptualized within a human ﬁeld image changes in mutual process with unitary perspective. Diversity is inherent in the evolution of the a way congruent with Rogers’ principles and postu- human/environmental mutual ﬁeld process. Researchers need to ensure that concepts and evolution of the human energy ﬁeld is character- measurement tools used in the inquiry are deﬁned ized by the creation of more diverse patterns re- and conceptualized within a unitary perspective. Two major concepts— lected patterning modalities designed to foster har- “my motor is running” and “my ﬁeld expansion”— mony and well-being (Hastings-Tolsma, 1992; are rated using a semantic differential technique Watson et al. Examples of indicators of higher veloped within and unitary science perspective that human ﬁeld motion include feeling imaginative, vi- may be used in a wide variety of research studies sionary, transcendent, strong, sharp, bright, and ac- and in combination with other Rogerian measure- tive. Indicators of relative low human ﬁeld motion ments include: include feeling dull, weak, dragging, dark, prag- matic, and passive. The tool has been widely used in • Assessment of Dream Experience Scale, which numerous Rogerian studies. Together, the researcher and Carboni (1992), which is a creative qualitative the participants develop a shared understanding measure designed to capture the changing con- and awareness of the human/environmental ﬁeld ﬁgurations of energy ﬁeld pattern of the healing patterns manifested in diverse multiple conﬁgura- human/environmental ﬁeld relationship. Carboni encouraged to use methods developed speciﬁc to (1995b) also developed special criteria of trustwor- the Science of Unitary Human Beings. Three meth- thiness to ensure the scientiﬁc rigor of the ﬁndings ods have been developed: Rogerian Process of conveyed in the form of a Pandimensional Unitary Inquiry, the Unitary Field Pattern Portrait Research Process Report. Each method a way of creatively measuring manifestations of was derived from Rogers’ unitary ontology and par- ﬁeld patterning emerging during coparticipation of ticipatory epistemology and is congruent with the the researcher and participant’s process of change. The method’s purpose is to investigate the Unitary Process of Inquiry and was derived directly dynamic enfolding-unfolding of the human from the criteria of Rogerian inquiry. Rogerian symphonic pattern manifestations emerging from Process of Inquiry transcends both matter-centered the pandimensional human/environmental ﬁeld methodologies espoused by empiricists and mutual process as a means to enhance the under- thought-bound methodologies espoused by phe- standing of a signiﬁcant phenomenon associated nomenologists and critical theorists (Carboni, with human betterment and well-being. Rather, this process of inquiry is evolution- eight essential aspects in the method, as described centered and focuses on changing conﬁgurations of here. Each aspect is described The ﬂow of the inquiry starts with a summation here in relation to the essential processses. Initial engagement is a passionate search for a re- purpose and researcher’s understanding of search question of central interest to under- Rogerian science. Next, the researcher focuses on standing unitary phenomena associated with becoming familiar with the participants and the human betterment and well-being. A priori nursing science identiﬁes the Science of ﬁeld perspectives are identiﬁed through observa- Unitary Human Beings as the researcher’s per- tions and discussions with participants and spective. It guides all processes of the research processed through mutual exploration and discov- method, including the interpretation of ﬁndings. Immersion involves becoming steeped in the re- the Healing Human Field–Environmental Field search topic. The researcher may immerse him- Relationship Creative Measurement Instrument self or herself in any activity that enhances the (Carboni, 1992) as a way to identify, understand, integrality of the researcher and the research and creatively measure human and environmental topic. Pattern manifestation knowing and appreciation ﬁgurations of the pattern manifestations emerg- includes participant selection, in-depth dialogu- ing from the human/environmental mutual ﬁeld ing, and recording pattern manifestations. The Participant selection is made using intensive dialogue is taped and transcribed. Patterning manifestation searcher maintains observational, methodologi- knowing and appreciation occurs in a natural cal, and theoretical ﬁeld notes, and a reﬂexive setting and involves using pandimensional journal. Any artifacts the participant wishes to modes of awareness during in-depth dialoguing. Unitary ﬁeld pattern proﬁle is a rich descrip- process section of the practice method are used tion of the participants’ experiences, percep- in this research method. All the tion and knowing is on experiences, percep- information collected for each participant is tions, and expressions associated with the synthesized into a narrative statement reveal- phenomenon of concern. The researcher also ing the essence of the participant’s descrip- maintains an informal conversational style while tion of the phenomenon of concern. Mutual processing involves constructing the thereby lifting the unitary ﬁeld pattern por- mutual unitary ﬁeld pattern proﬁle by mutu- trait from the level of description to the level ally sharing an emerging joint or shared pro- of unitary science. Scientiﬁc rigor is main- ﬁle with each successive participant at the end tained throughout processes by using the cri- of each participant’s pattern manifestation teria of trustworthiness and authenticity. For exam- findings of the study are conveyed in a ple, at the end of the fourth participant’s Unitary Field Pattern Report. The joint construction (mutual Cowling (2001) recently explicated the processes unitary ﬁeld pattern proﬁle) at this phase of Unitary Appreciative Inquiry as a method would consist of a synthesis of the proﬁles of grounded in Rogerian science for “uncovering the the ﬁrst three participants. After veriﬁcation wholeness and essence of human existence to in- of the fourth participant’s pattern proﬁle, the form the development of nursing science and guide proﬁle is folded into the emerging mutual the practice of nursing” (p. Pattern manifes- may be used with individuals, groups, or commu- tation knowing and appreciation continues nities and includes appreciative knowing, partici- until there are no new pattern manifestations patory, synoptic, and transformative processes. If it is not possible to either share the dinary and extraordinary forces characterized by pattern proﬁle with each participant or create unknowable mystery. The researcher and partici- a mutually constructed unitary ﬁeld pattern pant are equals in a participatory mutual process proﬁle, the research may choose to bypass the where outcomes are not imposed and change un- mutual processing phase. The unitary ﬁeld pattern portrait is created by amines all pattern information synoptically by identifying emerging unitary themes from viewing all experiences, perceptions, and expres- each participant’s ﬁeld pattern proﬁle, sorting sions as interrelated in a way that reﬂects the inher- the unitary themes into common categories ent wholeness of a phenomenon or situation.
Abuse occurs throughout all social classes purchase effexor xr 150mg online, but children from the most disadvantaged sectors of society are brought to the attention of child protection agencies more frequently (8) than those from nondisadvantaged sectors buy 150mg effexor xr otc. Extent of Abuse The true prevalence of child abuse is difficult to determine in all coun- tries purchase effexor xr 75 mg. Official estimates will only represent a fraction of the total number of cases, because many go unreported or unrecognized, and information systems are incomplete or track just one limited part of the picture. In the United States, the referral rate for child abuse investigations is three times higher than in the United Kingdom, and twice as many children are in state care, with four times as many child abuse deaths (9). In the United Kingdom, child protection registers hold statistical infor- mation on children identified by agencies as at risk of significant harm and for 162 Thomas whom a child protection plan has been developed. However, these figures record professional activity and the numbers of children registered, not the numbers of children who have been abused. They exclude cases where abuse has occurred but the child is otherwise protected or no longer at risk, cases where abuse has not been recognized, or cases where the child has not been registered but may still be subject to abuse. In 2002, there were 23 children per 10,000 aged less than 18 years on the child protection register, and 19% were registered under the category of physical injury, the second most fre- quent type of maltreatment (10). Neglect is the most common category of registration or type of maltreat- ment in both the United Kingdom and the United States. Injury may occur in the context of neglect, such as leaving a child unsupervised and exposed to dangerous situations. Hobbs and Wynne (12) found that 1 in 6 of 769 physically abused children and 1 in 7 of 949 sexually abused children had suffered both forms of abuse. Role of the Physician Physicians have a duty (a legal duty in countries, such as the United States and Australia) to recognize and report suspected abuse to the statutory investigative agencies. Physicians need to work together with statutory agen- Nonaccidential Injury in Children 163 cies and have an awareness and understanding of other agencies’ roles and responsibilities. Physicians should be aware of current guidance on account- ability and confidentiality produced by their professional bodies. Physicians may be involved in a range of child protection activities, including the following: • Recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of injury. Assessing the Nonaccidentally Injured Child For the physician faced with the assessment of a child for suspected physi- cal injury, the following points should be remembered: • Physical abuse often overlaps with other forms of abuse. Remember to docu- ment the responses and the questions asked and any spontaneous disclosures. Assessment of the “whole child,” including: • Growth plotted on a percentile chart. Legible, signed, dated, hand-written, contemporaneous record of the assessment with drawings of injuries detailing measurements. This does not replace the formal investigation procedures but may be helpful for the examining physician, who must consider the wider picture to formulate an opinion and guide the child protection agencies. Provision of a clear, factual report detailing the findings, summarizing the assess- ment, and providing a medical opinion for child protection agencies and any crimi- nal proceedings. Bruising A bruise is an escape of blood into the skin, subcutaneous tissue, or both, after the rupture of blood vessels by the application of blunt force (14). The initial color of the bruise is the product of the child’s natural skin pigmenta- tion, the color of the pigments in the extravasated blood, and any color added by the inflammatory reaction. The color of the bruise changes as the extracel- lular hemoglobin breaks down into various pigments (15). Factors affecting the appearance of a bruise include (16): • The severity of the force applied to the area. Nonaccidential Injury in Children 165 • Skin color—bruising is more visible in pale skin. Fingertip bruises consisting of circular or oval bruises from squeezing, poking, gripping, or grabbing injuries. Linear petechial bruises in the shape of a hand caused by capillaries rupturing at the edge of the injury from the high-velocity impact of the hand slap. Pinch marks consisting of paired, crescent-shaped bruises separated by a white line. High-velocity impact causing a rim of petechiae outlining the pattern of the inflicting instrument, e. Pressure necrosis of the skin from ligatures, causing well-demarcated bands partially or fully encircling limbs or the neck. Numbers: • The number of accidental bruises increases with increased mobility of a child. Differential Diagnosis of Bruising • Accidental injury—commonly on bony surfaces, appropriate history. Investigations In the presence of excessive or reported spontaneous bruising, it is rea- sonable to exclude an underlying bleeding disorder. Suggested tests include full blood count, platelet count, prothrombin time, thrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen level, and bleeding time (after discussion with a hematologist). Bite Marks A bite mark is a mark made by teeth alone or in combination with other mouth parts and may be considered a mirror image of the arrangement and characteristics of the dentition. Human bite marks rarely occur accidentally Nonaccidential Injury in Children 167 and are good indicators of inflicted injury. Children can be bitten in the con- text of punishment, as part of a physical assault, or in association with sexual abuse.
Oxygen has the atomic number 8 effexor xr 75 mg with mastercard, and the ground-state 2 2 2 1 1 electronic conﬁguration for oxygen can be written as 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz cheap effexor xr 37.5mg on-line. Similarly generic effexor xr 75 mg without prescription, we can write the others as follows: 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 Chlorine (atomic number 17): 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz 3s 3px 3py 3pz 2 2 1 1 1 Nitrogen (atomic number 7): 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 Sulphur (atomic number 16): 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz 3s 3px 3py 3pz 2 2 1 1 0 Carbon (atomic number 6): 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz 2. All noble gases are inert, because their atoms have a stable electronic conﬁguration in which they have eight electrons in the outer shell except helium (two electrons). One of the driving forces behind the bonding in an atom is to obtain a stable valence electron conﬁguration. Electrons in shells that are not completely ﬁlled are called valence electrons, also known as outer-shell electrons, and the energy level in which they are found is also known as the valence shell. Carbon, for example, with the ground-state 2 2 2 electronic conﬁguration 1s 2s 2p , has four outer-shell electrons. We generally use the Lewis structure to represent the outermost electrons of an atom. According to the Lewis theory, an atom will give up, accept or share electrons in order to achieve a ﬁlled outer shell that contains eight electrons. The Lewis structure of a covalent molecule shows all the electrons in the valence shell of each atom; the bonds between atoms are shown as shared pairs of electrons. Atoms transfer or share electrons in such a way that they can attain a ﬁlled shell of electrons. Lewis structures help us to track the valence electrons and predict the types of bond. The number of valence electrons present in each of the elements is to be considered ﬁrst. The number of valence electrons determines the number of electrons needed to complete the octet of eight electrons. Simple ions are atoms that have gained or lost electrons to satisfy the octet rule. Elements in organic compounds are joined by covalent bonds, a sharing of electrons, and each element contributes one electron to the bond. The number of electrons necessary to complete the octet determines the number of electrons that must be contributed and shared by a different element in a bond. This analysis ﬁnally determines the number of bonds that each element may enter into with other elements. In a double bond they share two pairs of electrons and form a s bond and a p bond. In a triple bond two atoms share three pairs of electrons and form a s bond and two p bonds. Sodium (Na) loses a single electron from its 3s orbital to attain a more 2 2 6 stable neon gas conﬁguration (1s 2s 2p ) with no electron in the outer shell. The total number of electrons in the valence shell of each atom can be determined from its group number in the periodic table. The shared electrons are called the bonding electrons and may be represented by a line or lines between two atoms. The valence electrons that are not being shared are the nonbonding electrons or lone pair electrons, and they are shown in the Lewis structure by dots around the symbol of the atom. Usually they are very reactive, and are believed to play signiﬁcant roles in aging, cancer and many other ailments. In neutral organic compounds, C forms four bonds, N forms three bonds (and a lone pair), O forms two bonds (and two lone pairs) and H forms one bond. Lewis structure shows the connectivity between atoms in a molecule by a number of dots equal to the number of electrons in the outer shell of an atom of that molecule. When drawing Lewis structures, it is essential to keep track of the number of electrons available to form bonds and the location of the electrons. The number of valence electrons of an atom can be obtained from the periodic table because it is equal to the group number of the atom. For example, hydrogen (H) in Group 1A has one valence electron, carbon (C) in Group 4A has four valence electrons, and ﬂuorine (F) in Group 7A has seven valence electrons. The remaining six valence electrons are with the ﬂuorine atom in the three nonbonding pairs. H In the periodic table, the period 2 elements C, N, O, and F have valence electrons that belong to the second shell (2s and three 2p). In period 3, elements Si, P, S and Cl have the valence electrons that belong to the third shell (3s,three3p and ﬁve 3d ). The shell is only partially ﬁlled with eight electrons in 3s and three 3p, and the ﬁve 3d orbitals can accommodate an additional ten electrons. For these differences in valence shell orbitals available to elements of the second and third periods, we see signiﬁcant differences in the covalent bonding of oxygen and sulphur, and of nitrogen and phosphorus. Although oxygen and nitrogen can accommodate no more than eight electrons in their valence shells, many phosphorus-containing compounds have 10 electrons in the valence shell of phosphorus, and many sulphur-containing compounds have 10 and even 12 electrons in the valence shell of sulphur. So, to derive Lewis structures for most molecules the following sequence should be followed. If an atom other than hydrogen has fewer than eight electrons then move unshared pairs to form multiple bonds. Lewis structures are useful as they show what atoms are bonded together, and whether any atoms possess lone pairs of electrons or have a formal charge. A formal charge is the difference between the number of valence electrons an atom actually has when it is not bonded to any other atoms, and the number of nonbonding electrons and half of its bonding electrons. Thus, a positive or negative charge assigned to an atom is called a formal charge. The decision as to where to put the charge is made by calculating the formal charge for each atom in an ion or a molecule.