By J. Lukjan. Concordia University, Portland Oregon.
Dietary Intake Based on intake data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1994–1996 buy generic carisoprodol 500mg on-line, 1998) discount carisoprodol 500mg, the median cholesterol intake ranged from approximately 250 to 325 mg/d for men and 180 to 205 mg/d for women (Appendix Table E-15) order carisoprodol 500 mg mastercard. The meta-analysis also identified a diminishing increment of serum cholesterol with increasing baseline dietary cholesterol intake. With a baseline cholesterol intake of 0, the estimated increases in serum total cholesterol concentration for intakes from 100 to 400 mg/d of added dietary cholesterol were 0. Other predictive formulas for the effect of 100 mg/d of added dietary cholesterol, which did not consider baseline cholesterol intake and are based on compilations of studies with a variety of experimental conditions, have yielded estimates of 0. Furthermore, pooled analyses of the effects of 100 mg/d of added dietary cholesterol on plasma lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (Clarke et al. The incremental serum cholesterol response to a given amount of dietary cholesterol appears to diminish as baseline serum cholesterol intake increases (Hopkins, 1992). There is also evidence from a number of studies that increases in serum cholesterol concentration due to dietary choles- terol are blunted by diets low in saturated fat, high in polyunsaturated fat, or both (Fielding et al. There is considerable evidence for interindividual variation in serum cholesterol response to dietary cholesterol, ranging from 0 to greater than 100 percent (Hopkins, 1992). There is increasing evidence that genetic factors underlie a substantial portion of interindividual variation in response to dietary cholesterol. An instructive case is that of the Tarahumara Indians, who in addition to consuming a diet low in cholesterol, have both low intestinal cholesterol absorption and increased transformation of cholesterol to bile acids (McMurry et al. However, with an increase in dietary cholesterol from 0 to 905 mg/d, their average plasma cholesterol concentration increased 0. Variations in several genes have been associated with altered respon- siveness to dietary cholesterol. The common E4 polymorphism of the apoE gene has been associated with increased cholesterol absorption (Kesäniemi et al. The recent finding that apoE is of importance in regulating cholesterol absorption and bile acid formation in apoE knockout mice (Sehayek et al. There are numerous other candidate genes that could modulate plasma lipid and lipoprotein response to dietary cholesterol by affecting cholesterol absorption, cellular cholesterol homeostasis, and plasma lipo- protein metabolism. Studies in animal models have generated data in support of the possibility that variations among these genes may be of importance in influencing dietary cholesterol response in humans, but to date such human data are lacking. Nevertheless, the existence of marked interindividual variability in dietary cholesterol response among and within various animal models points to the likelihood that some of the mecha- nisms underlying this variability will also apply to humans. There is compelling evidence that dietary cholesterol can induce atherosclerosis in several animal species, including rabbits, pigs, nonhuman primates, and transgenic mice (Bocan, 1998; McNamara, 2000; Rudel, 1997). However, given the existence of marked inter- and intraspecies differences in cholesterol metabolism and athero- genic mechanisms, it is not possible to extrapolate these data directly to humans. A significant relative risk was also observed in the Western Electric Study, which remained significant after adjustment for a number of covariates, including dietary fat and serum cholesterol concentration (Stamler and Shekelle, 1988). More recently, in a study of 10,802 health- conscious men and women in the United Kingdom, a univariate relation- ship of cholesterol intake to ischemic heart disease mortality was observed (Mann et al. This finding was corroborated in a European study, but after multivariate analysis adjust- ing for fiber intake, the association was no longer significant (Toeller et al. Measures of atherosclerosis using imaging techniques have also been assessed in relation to diet. Angiographically assessed coronary artery disease progression over 39 months in 50 men was weakly related to cholesterol intake in univariate, but not multivariate, analysis (Watts et al. In 13,148 male and female participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Commu- nities Study, carotid artery wall thickness, an index of early atherosclerosis, was significantly related to dietary cholesterol intake by univariate analyses; multivariate analysis was not performed (Tell et al. Another uncertainty relates to interpreting the effects of dietary cholesterol on blood cholesterol concentrations. Finally, the considerable interindividual variation in lipid response to dietary cholesterol may result in differing outcomes in differ- ent populations or population subgroups. Cancer As shown in Tables 9-5 through 9-8, no consistent significant associa- tions have been established between dietary cholesterol intake and cancer, including lung, breast, colon, and prostate. Several case-control studies have suggested that a high consumption of cholesterol may be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (Alavanja et al. As reviewed above, on average, an increase of 100 mg/d of dietary cholesterol is predicted to result in a 0. This effect of added cholesterol is highly variable among individuals and is considerably attenuated at higher baseline cholesterol intakes. Epidemiological studies have limited power to detect effects of such magnitude and thus do not provide a meaningful basis for establishing adverse effects of dietary cholesterol. However, no studies have examined the effects of very small increments of dietary cholesterol in numbers of subjects suffi- ciently large enough to permit statistical treatment of the data. Because cholesterol is unavoidable in ordinary, nonvegan diets, eliminating choles- terol in the diet would require significant changes in patterns of dietary intake. Independence of the effects of cholesterol and degree of saturation of the fat in the diet on serum cholesterol in man. Andersson S-O, Wolk A, Bergström R, Giovannucci E, Lindgren C, Baron J, Adami H-O. Energy, nutrient intake and prostate cancer risk: A population- based case-control study in Sweden. Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men: Cohort follow up study in the United States. Influence of formula versus breast milk on cholesterol synthesis rates in four-month-old infants. Effect of egg yolk feeding on the concentration and composition of serum lipoproteins in man. Reproducibility of the variations between humans in the response of serum cholesterol to cessation of egg consumption. Comparison of the lipid composition of breast milk from mothers of term and preterm infants.
Initially order carisoprodol 500 mg overnight delivery, the vomitus was food that she had recently eaten discount carisoprodol 500mg visa, but it is now bilious generic 500mg carisoprodol free shipping; there has been no blood in the vomit. Examination shows a distended tympanitic abdomen with diffuse tenderness and no rebound. A 4-year-old boy is brought to the physician by his parents because of a 4-month history of difficulty running and frequent falls. His parents report that his calves have been gradually increasing in size during this period. An 18-year-old man is brought to the emergency department 10 minutes after he sustained a stab wound to his chest. His pulse is 130/min, respirations are 8/min and shallow, and palpable systolic blood pressure is 60 mm Hg. Examination shows a 2-cm wound at the left sixth intercostal space at the midclavicular line. A 70-year-old man is admitted to the hospital for elective coronary artery bypass grafting. Ten days after admission to the hospital because of acute pancreatitis, a 56-year-old man with alcoholism develops chills and temperatures to 39. A 24-year-old nulligravid woman is brought to the emergency department after a syncopal episode at work. She has had progressively severe cramps in the lower abdomen over the past 6 hours. She has had spotty vaginal bleeding for 2 days; her last menstrual period began 7 weeks ago. Examination shows blood in the vaginal vault and diffuse abdominal tenderness; there is pain with cervical motion. A 52-year-old man comes to the physician because of a 5-month history of pain in his left knee that is exacerbated by walking long distances. His pulse is 82/min and regular, respirations are 16/min, and blood pressure is 130/82 mm Hg. Examination of the left knee shows mild crepitus with flexion and extension; there is no effusion or warmth. X-rays of the knees show narrowing of the joint space in the left knee compared with the right knee. A previously healthy 32-year-old man comes to the emergency department because of a 3-day history of pain and swelling of his right knee. Two weeks ago, he injured his right knee during a touch football game and has had swelling and bruising for 5 days. A 57-year-old woman with inoperable small cell carcinoma of the lung has had lethargy, loss of appetite, and nausea for 1 week. A 3799-g (8-lb 6-oz) female newborn is born by cesarean delivery because of a breech presentation. Initial examination shows a palpable clunk when the left hip is abducted, flexed, and lifted forward. A previously healthy 72-year-old man comes to the physician because of decreased urinary output during the past 2 days; he has had no urinary output for 8 hours. His serum urea nitrogen concentration is 88 mg/dL, and serum creatinine concentration is 3. A 3-year-old boy is brought to the emergency department because of a 2-week history of persistent cough and wheezing. An expiratory chest x-ray shows hyperinflation of the right lung; there is no mediastinal or tracheal shift. Two hours after undergoing a right hepatic lobectomy, a 59-year-old woman has a distended abdomen. Three days after undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis, a 42-year-old woman has the onset of hematomas at all surgical sites. She was treated for deep venous thrombosis 3 years ago but was not taking any medications at the time of this admission. Prior to the operation, she received heparin and underwent application of compression stockings. Two days after undergoing surgical repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, a 67-year-old man requires increasing ventilatory support. A previously healthy 62-year-old man comes to the physician because of a 2-month history of cough. Fasting serum studies show a total cholesterol concentration of 240 mg/dL and glucose concentration of 182 mg/dL. A 3-year-old girl is brought to the emergency department because of left leg pain after falling at preschool 2 hours ago. She has consistently been at the 10th percentile for height and weight since birth. An x-ray shows a new fracture of the left femur and evidence of previous fracturing. B - 131 - Emergency Medicine Advanced Clinical Systems* General Principles, including ethics and patient safety 1%–5% Immunologic Disorders 1%–5% Diseases of the Blood 5%–10% Mental Disorders 1%–5% Diseases of the Nervous System 10%–15% Cardiovascular Disorders 15%–20% Diseases of the Respiratory System 10%–15% Nutritional and Digestive Disorders 10%–15% Gynecologic Disorders 1%–5% Renal, Urinary, Male Reproductive Systems 5%–10% Obstetric Disorders 1%–5% Diseases of the Skin 1%–5% Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders 5%–10% Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 5%–10% Physician Task Promoting Health and Health Maintenance 1%–5% Understanding Mechanisms of Disease 5%–10% Establishing a Diagnosis 25%–35% Applying Principles of Management 45%–55% Patient Age Birth to 17 5%–10% 18 to 65 60%–65% 66 and older 15%–20% *A subset of items across the organ systems includes content that focuses on resuscitation/trauma (~15%) and environmental/toxicologic disorders (~15%). A 32-year-old woman comes to the emergency department 3 hours after the sudden onset of a severe headache. A 24-year-old nulligravid woman is brought to the emergency department after a syncopal episode at work. She has had progressively severe cramps in the lower abdomen over the past 6 hours. She has had spotty vaginal bleeding for 2 days; her last menstrual period began 7 weeks ago. Examination shows blood in the vaginal vault and diffuse abdominal tenderness; there is pain with cervical motion.
Physical examination shows erythema purchase carisoprodol 350mg with visa, swelling buy 350 mg carisoprodol with amex, warmth buy generic carisoprodol 500 mg line, and tenderness behind the right knee; a cord-like mass can be palpated. A 4030-g (8-lb 14-oz) newborn has internal rotation of the left upper extremity at the shoulder, extension at the elbow, pronation of the forearm, and flexion of the fingers following a low forceps delivery. Passive range of motion of the left upper extremity is full; the newborn does not cry or grimace when the left arm, shoulder, or clavicle is palpated. He has a 5-year history of progressive difficulty falling asleep at night and waking up early in the morning. A 22-year-old woman comes to the physician because of a 1-year history of intermittent lower abdominal cramps associated with bloating and mild nausea. The cramps are occasionally associated with constipation and bowel movements relieve the pain. A 10-year retrospective study is conducted to determine factors that could predispose women to have children with complex congenital heart disease. A total of 1000 women were asked whether they had flu-like symptoms during their first trimester. The investigators found that women who had children with complex congenital heart disease were five times more likely than women with healthy newborns to report flu-like symptoms in their first trimester. Which of the following features of this study is most likely to affect the validity of this conclusion? An asymptomatic 32-year-old woman comes to the physician for a follow-up examination. She has a 10-month history of hypertension that has been difficult to control with medication. Current medications include metoprolol, lisinopril, hydrochlorothiazide, and nifedipine. Five days after falling and hitting her chest, a 55-year-old woman has acute midsternal chest pain that radiates to the back and is exacerbated by deep inspiration. Immediately following the accident, she had acute sternal pain that resolved in 1 day. A 19-year-old primigravid woman comes to the physician for her first prenatal visit. A 37-year-old woman comes to the emergency department 40 minutes after the onset of shortness of breath, dizziness, and an itchy rash. Two days after beginning primaquine for malaria prophylaxis, a 17-year-old African American boy is brought to the physician because of dark urine and yellowing of his eyes. A 17-year-old boy comes to the physician because he believes that his penis is too large. He has been uncomfortable with the size of his genitals since he underwent puberty 4 years ago. He is concerned that people will see the bulge of his genitals under his clothing. Although he has never had sexual intercourse, he is afraid that his size will make it difficult or painful for most women. He plays intramural basketball but no longer undresses in front of teammates or uses public showers. On mental status examination, he appears embarrassed, and he describes his mood as "okay. A - 157 - Introduction to Clinical Diagnosis Systems General Principles 15%−20% Human development and genetics Gender, ethnic, & behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment & prevention Progression through life cycle Psychologic and social factors influencing patient behavior Patient interviewing, consultation, and interactions with the family Medical ethics, jurisprudence, and professional behavior Nutrition Hematopoietic & Lymphoreticular System 1%−5% Central & Peripheral Nervous System 15%−20% Skin & Related Connective Tissue 1%−5% Musculoskeletal System 5%−10% Respiratory System 10%−15% Cardiovascular System 15%−20% Gastrointestinal System 10%−15% Renal/Urinary System 1%−5% Reproductive System 5%−10% Endocrine System 1%−5% - 158 - 1. A 6-month-old boy is brought to the physician because of left knee swelling for 24 hours. Three months ago, he had three large hematomas on his forehead that resolved without treatment. His mother’s maternal uncle and her brother died before the age of 30 years of massive cerebral hemorrhages. Physical examination shows deep ecchymoses over the buttocks and severe swelling of the left knee. The most likely explanation for these findings is a deficiency of which of the following? A 56-year-old man has had a small, slowly growing nodule on his chin during the past 3 years. Examination of tissue obtained on excision of the lesion is most likely to show which of the following? A 23-year-old woman comes to the physician because of a 5-month history of intermittent discharge from both breasts. Physical examination shows scant white fluid expressible from the breasts bilaterally. Serum studies are most likely to show an increase in which of the following hormone concentrations? A 39-year-old man has the acute onset of pain, corneal clouding, and diffuse redness in the left eye. During sleep evaluation, he is noted to snore loudly and stop breathing for prolonged periods of 30 to 40 seconds. Toward the end of one of these apneic periods, arterial blood gas analysis is done. A 65-year-old woman comes to the physician because of a 2-day history of a high temperature, chills, and headache.