By K. Tufail. Eastern Kentucky University.
Some dosing pump suppliers offer auto-degas valves systems as part the dosing system design order 40mg testosterone anadoil with visa. Gas is typically removed from the suction line through a vent valve and directed back to the storage tank with a small amount of liquid testosterone anadoil 40mg free shipping. Bulk hypochlorite dosing systems should be installed with a flooded suction to aid in the prevention of gasification order 40 mg testosterone anadoil mastercard. Pump suction lines should be always below the minimum tank liquid level and be installed downwards from the tank to the pump. Delivery lines should slope upward from the metering pump without loops or pipe configurations which will trap sodium hypochlorite between two closed valves and be fitted with anti-siphon valves. Relative to commercial sodium hypochlorite (5-15%) it is less hazardous and also a more stable chemical compound. Most proprietary systems also possess automatic safeguards which shut down the system if a fault is detected. Consequently a parallel room ventilation system will assure the hydrogen gas is quickly dispersed. As hydrogen will rise to the ceiling, the room ventilation system should be designed to provide for exhaust air to exit near the ceiling. The vent should exceed the size of the tank’s largest inlet or outlet nozzle by two inches. The vents should have a vinyl insect screen attached to the end to keep debris or insects out of the tank. Every atmospheric pressure rated tank must be protected at all times by properly sized vent pipes in order to prevent build-up of pressure or vacuum conditions. Operators should never remove an access hatch or work on the storage tank until the requirements of a site specific operating procedure has been complied with. Calcium Hypochlorite Calcium hypochlorite is another chlorinating chemical used infrequently in an Irish context. It is used primarily in smaller water supply disinfection applications and in swimming pools. It is a white, dry solid containing approximately 65% chlorine, and is commercially available in granular and tablet form. Calcium hypochlorite is particularly reactive in the solid form with associated fire or explosive hazard if handled improperly. All forms of calcium hypochlorite should be properly stored in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions in a cool, dark, dry place in closed corrosion resistant containers. Calcium hypochlorite should be stored away from heat and organic materials that can be readily oxidized. Improperly stored calcium hypochlorite has caused spontaneous combustion fires in the past Granular calcium hypochlorite, if stored out of closed containers can lose about 18% of its initial available chlorine in 40 days. Consequently stocks should be dated and controlled and used in rotation so as to minimise deterioration in storage. Solutions should be prepared on a batch basis for use following mixing and special provision for the separation of diluted calcium hypochlorite from inert materials as follows: from granular product, by the provision of a separate mixing tank upstream of the dosing tank and mechanically mixing. Following proper mixing the inert insoluble material is allowed to settle prior to decantation of the dissolved liquid only to the dosing tank. Hygiene and good housekeeping at treatment/disinfection installations Due to the importance of water as a food product, the importance of good hygiene practices by operators and the elimination of the potential public health hazard posed by uncontrolled ingress by 176 Environmental Protection Agency Water Treatment Manual: Disinfection Appendix 2. Where appropriate, this training should include the actions required if one of these personnel has an illness (for example gastroenteritis or Hepatitis A) that could pose a risk of contamination of the drinking water supply or spread of the illness to other personnel. Hygienic practices are particularly important for multifunctional personnel who may work on both water supply and sewage. This scheme consists of completing a health questionnaire, receiving comprehensive water hygiene training and successfully passing a multi- choice test paper. All buildings and storage areas shall be kept and maintained in a clean and sanitary condition. No rubbish or other waste shall be permitted to accumulate or to remain in any area which may afford food, refuge or a breeding place for rodents. All equipment, drums and other material stored placed on pallets elevated above the ground or floor, with a clear clean space beneath. Where repairs or alterations are made to the installation, ensure such alterations are undertaken and made rodent-proof by the proper use of impervious materials. All wall or ventilator openings at or near foundation level shall be covered for their entire height and width with perforated sheet metal plates, expanded sheet metal or iron grilles or gratings with openings therein shall not exceed 12 mm in least dimension. Openings due to deteriorated walls or broken masonry or concrete, shall be protected against the ingress of rodents by the closing of such openings with cement mortar, concrete, or masonry. All exposed edges of wooden doors and jambs shall be protected against the ingress of rodents by covering said doors and jambs with solid sheet metal. All such doors on which metal plates have been fitted shall, when closed, fit snugly so that the maximum clearance between any door and the door jamb and sill shall not exceed 10mm. All reservoir roof ventilators and access manhole openings shall similarly all be fitted with removable anti-vermin mesh screens to prevent birds, animals or insects from entering the storage tanks or reservoirs. All openings which are accessible to rodents by way of exposed pipes, wires, conduits and other appurtenances, shall be covered with a mesh not larger than 12mm) Such mesh guards shall be fitted snugly around pipes, wires, conduits or other appurtenances and be fastened securely to the exterior wall and shall extend a minimum distance of 300mm beyond and on either side of said pipe, wire, conduit, or appurtenance. Chlorine in water samples is quite volatile, and so the calibration of online instruments is normally carried out by comparing the online instrument reading with the result of analysis on a handheld instrument at the analyser. Points to bear in mind with this procedure are: It is important that the analyser sampling system has a suitable point at the analyser for withdrawing a sample which is representative of the instrument sample. If online instruments are ‘hunting’, subject to rapidly changing process conditions or poor mixing, then calibration should not be undertaken. Sample cells for the chlorine handheld tests should be scrupulously clean and not used for other samples which may have a chlorine demand. If the online reading has not changed since the sample was taken, then the reading is trimmed so that it agrees with the test kit reading.
It should be noted in this context that the tribunal in this case implied that some provisions are specifically negotiated whereas others are not testosterone anadoil 40mg with visa. The tribunal followed the respondent’s main objections cheap 40 mg testosterone anadoil free shipping, based strongly on the Tecmed v discount testosterone anadoil 40mg on-line. The tribunal found that the investor had made an investment under the basic treaty, but in any case rejected the proposed alternative: “Each treaty defines what it considers a protected investment and who is entitled to that protection, and definitions can change from treaty to treaty. Eliminating provisions of the basic treaty Other cases have dealt with a different scenario where the claimant seeks to eliminate a non-beneficial provision of the basic treaty on grounds that it is not contained in a third party treaty. The absence of such a clause would, in the claimant’s view, make the conditions of the third party treaty more favourable. Argentina the claimant sought to avoid the application of the emergency exception clause contained in the basic treaty between the United States and Argentina. In the case where foreign investors were competing for the same public procurement project the tribunal compared not only two investors in the same economic sector but also the characteristics of their respective project proposals. Pakistan (merits) the tribunal established that the similarity and hence the comparability between the foreign investors had to be examined at the level of the contractual terms and circumstances. It held that they have similar conditions of application and basically afford indirect advantages to their beneficiaries, namely a treatment no less favourable than the one granted to third parties. It then elaborated on the basis of comparison that had to be met: “Discrimination is to be ascertained by looking at the circumstances of the individual cases. Discrimination involves either issues of law, such as legislation affording different treatments in function of citizenship, or issues of fact where a State unduly treats differently investors who are in similar circumstances. An objective justification may justify differentiated treatments of similar cases. It would be necessary, in each case, to evaluate the exact circumstances and the context. Even though the relevant comparators were engaged in similar activities (they were competitors for the same project), the tribunal concluded that the relevant investors were in different circumstances, in particular because their offers and proposed projects had different characteristics. Pakistan the claimant alleged that it was expelled both to save costs and for reasons of local favouritism, considering in particular that far more favourable timetables had been accorded to Pakistani nationals associated with foreign contractors and that these other contractors had not been expelled even though they were far more behind in the schedule of completion. As to the first point, the tribunal established that the similarity had to be examined at the level of the contractual terms and circumstances, but found itself in no position to proceed to any meaningful comparison given the absence of data on the terms and the performance of the different contracts involved. Spain, but all the subsequent cases have involved Argentina as the respondent State. The defendant State has argued that the mandatory waiting period was a condition that had to be met for a claim to be brought before an arbitral tribunal and that said arbitral tribunal would not have jurisdiction of the case, lest this condition had been exhausted. Cases here have involved a request to bring contractual claims before a treaty based arbitration panel and a number of requests to extend jurisdiction of arbitral tribunals beyond assessing the amount of compensation subsequent to expropriation. This second category of cases will be looked at under the heading of “scope of jurisdiction” requirements. Of course, the third-party treaty has to relate to the same subject matter as the basic treaty, be it the protection of foreign investments or the promotion of trade, since the dispute settlement provisions will operate in the context of these matters; otherwise there would be a contravention of that principle. This operation of the most favored nation clause does, however, have some important limits arising from public policy considerations that will be 22 discussed further below. It is clear, in any event, that a distinction has to be made between the legitimate extension of rights and benefits by means of the operation of the clause, on the one hand, and disruptive treaty-shopping that would play havoc with the policy objectives 23 of underlying specific treaty provisions, on the other hand. Spain were based on treaties with different wordings but came to the same conclusion: the 18-months waiting period was disregarded and the tribunal had jurisdiction. As referred above, certain public policy limitations, taken by the parties to the agreement, were 34 taken into account. Moreover, a distinction was made between “the legitimate extension of rights and benefits by means of the operation of the clause, on the one hand, and disruptive treaty shopping that would play havoc with the policy objectives of underlying specific 35 treaty provisions, on the other hand. Argentina rejected the argument that the 18-months 37 waiting period was a “public policy rule” whereas the tribunal in National Grid v. Argentina, the claimant sought to override the requirement arguing that it did not involve jurisdiction, consent or any “public policy” provision. However, the tribunal then went on to qualify this argument that the issue at stake did not relate to consent or jurisdiction as “plainly erroneous”. In doing so it gave particular weight to the “consent” as the founding principle upon which jurisdiction is formed: “Besides, it is a general principle of international law that international courts and tribunals can exercise jurisdiction over a State only with its consent. The principle is often described as a corollary to the sovereignty and independence of the State. A presumed consent is not regarded as sufficient, because any restriction upon the independence of a State (not agreed to) cannot be presumed by courts. While reviewing the early cases relating to the issue, the tribunal dismissed any analogy with Ambiatelos. Lastly, the Claimants had not cited any practice in Jordan or Italy in 46 support of their claims. However, the tribunal did not accept the arguments advanced by the claimant, although these arguments had been decisive in those cases dealing with the 18-months requirement (see above). The tribunal relied on an established principle, “both in domestic and international law”, that an agreement to arbitrate should be “clear and unambiguous”, and consequently stated that the parties’ clear and unambiguous intention could not be identified if the agreement to arbitrate was to be reached through incorporation by reference. The Tribunal is inclined to agree with the Claimant that in this particular case, a choice is better than no choice. It made reference to the risks of an uncontained “treaty shopping”: “… It is one thing to add to the treatment provided in one treaty more favorable treatment provided elsewhere. It is quite another thing to replace a procedure specifically negotiated by parties 49 with an entirely different mechanism. Such a chaotic situation—actually counterproductive to harmonization—cannot be the presumed 50 intent of Contracting Parties. Having rejected the claim, the tribunal “wholeheartedly” endorsed the statement of principle made by the tribunal in Plama v. Bulgaria case in the sense that an “agreement to arbitrate should not be reached by incorporation by reference”.
The natural progression of the disease is usually moderately slow cheap 40 mg testosterone anadoil mastercard, although rapid advancement is also seen on occasions 40 mg testosterone anadoil amex. The typical course of disease comprises tumour spread on the peritoneal surfaces testosterone anadoil 40 mg amex, but invasion of the organs is also seen, especially in cases with a high-grade histology. Nevertheless, those that can be seen are found in the livers or lungs of patients with high-grade histology. Eventually the progressive amount of mucus causes dyspnea, gastrointestinal obstruction, malnutrition, hydronephrosis, and other organ malfunctioning. Another Dutch study, in which data were retrieved from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry noted an increase in age-standardized incidence of appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma that varied between 0. The study period was 1980 to 2010 and the data cover a large part of the southern Netherlands, which comprises about 2. The following section will examine more closely the schemes considered to be the most relevant for the debate on classification. Cytological atypia and architectural complexity are sufficient to establish a diagnosis of mucinous carcinoma. Despite the peritoneal lesions, the primary lesion in the appendix lacks evidence of invasive features. Pai and Longacre proposed their differential diagnosis spectrum of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms in 2005 . They considered mucinous adenoma lesions, which involve appendiceal mucosal surface and are composed of mucin-rich epithelium. There is no invasion by the epithelium into the muscular wall nor is there a presence of epithelium on the serosa. According to Pai and Longacre’s definition, mucinous adenoma is restricted to those cases without epithelium involvement in extra- appendiceal mucin. Consequently, if the appendix is surgically excised, no further treatment is required. Therefore, the 14 differential diagnostics between these two groups is challenging. It is impossible to definitely exclude the possibility of extra-appendiceal spread of epithelial cells, even if no macroscopic tumour can be seen on the peritoneal surfaces. They also restricted the use of this category to those cases with extremely well-differentiated mucinous neoplasms but which also had an uncertain stage of invasion. In contrast, mucinous carcinoma exhibits architectural complexity and high- grade cytological atypia with high mitotic activity. There is always uncertainty as to whether the epithelial cells have sprayed on peritoneal surfaces, thus the division of histological comparably homogeneous group of lesions by invasiveness might be somewhat irrelevant. On the other hand, a clear dividing line can be drawn between the mucinous carcinoma and the other groups. The lesion can be classified according to the definition as low-grade or high-grade pseudomyxoma. The alternative terms low-grade and high-grade mucinous adenocarcinoma can be used as well. There are histopathological, immunochemical, and molecular genetic studies that suggest the appendix as an origin in those cases with synchronous tumour of appendix and ovary [10, 22, 24]. Thus, the pattern of immunoreactivity was distinct from primary ovarian tumour and similar to appendiceal adenoma . The classic sign is increased abdominal girdle, which is caused by the accumulation of gelatinous ascites. This is characteristic of the progressive state of disease in which the most of the abdomen is filled with ascites and tumour . The chief complaint may be a newly-onset hernia as a consequence of increased intra-abdominal pressure. A typical finding is an ovarian mass found by transvaginal ultrasonography during routine gynaecological examination. During surgery, there might be unexpected deposits of mucus on the peritoneal surfaces. Gastric antrum, lesser omentum, left subphrenic region, spleen, rectum and sigma are entangled by the tumour mass in the terminal stage of the disease. What is emblematic for the terminal stage is the aforementioned scalloping of the hepatic margin, and a displacement or compression of the intestines by the abundant mucus . Bowel loops are positioned centrally and posteriorly by the surrounding mass instead of floating freely. Some authors have noted ultrasonography to be more beneficial for guide paracentesis . The needle biopsies commonly produce less information than expected when no mucus or no cells within the mucus are aspirated. The quantity of epithelial cells within the mucus may be low even in high- grade disease, thus the final evaluation about the grade should not be made from biopsy alone . Tumours of the appendix are infrequently seen in colonoscopy and rarely yield a diagnostic biopsy . Complete radicality is uncommon, however, and relapses will develop in most cases. The relapses lead to increasingly difficult subsequent operations, after adhesions, scarring, and distortion of the anatomy has developed and the disease has progressed.
Water Treatment Manual: Disinfection Hazard Control contamination Infiltration gallery influenced by surface water causing microbial contamination Monitor source water cheap testosterone anadoil 40 mg amex. Land drains causing preferential pathway for pollution of shallow well source Re-route land drains purchase 40mg testosterone anadoil. Catchment: Surface Water or Groundwater Supply Hazard Control Vandalism – deliberate contamination of source and unauthorised access Appropriate security and alarm system for site 40 mg testosterone anadoil mastercard. Raw Water Intake Hazard Control Direct surface water abstraction causing variability in water quality Change abstraction point to minimise variability in raw water. Intake not secured against livestock access causing microbial contamination Install and maintain fencing in the vicinity of the intake. Lake source intake point vulnerable to variation due to streams/ stratification/ Change abstraction point to minimise variability in raw water. Raw Water Storage Hazard Control Susceptible to flooding / contamination Consider flood defences. Unauthorised access resulting in deliberate contamination Appropriate security and alarm system for site. Lockable covers on all Water Treatment Manual: Disinfection access points to water supply. Wildlife access to raw water tank causing contamination Erect fencing or cover to prevent wildlife access. Sludge build up in raw water tank causing contamination Regular inspection and maintenance programme. Leaking impounding reservoir causing ingress of contamination Regular inspection and maintenance programme. Raw Water Line Hazard Control Pipe corroded or not watertight causing intrusion of Surface Water Regular inspection and maintenance programme. Raw water serving consumers without disinfection or other treatment Ensure asset records are kept up to date and authorised connections refer to these records. Treatment plant operating above design capacity Ensure treatment plant is operating within acceptable limits. Plant data can be used to verify this By-passing of any stage of treatment Appropriate alarms to notify when individual processes are bypassed. Frequent and significant flow variations through the works Consider intermediate storage to smooth out flow variations. Verify with plant data Coagulation/Flocculation/Clarification Stage Hazard Control Chemicals delivered to incorrect storage vessel Ensure chemical deliveries are overseen by competent treatment works personnel. Floc carry over due to inappropriate/inadequate dosing regime Regular dose optimisation. Floc carry over due to overloading of the plant/ surge flows Operate process within design parameters. Floc carry over due to poor adjustment/maintenance/design of lamella plates Regular inspection and maintenance programme Floc carry over due to poor maintenance or flooding of settlement channels Regular inspection and maintenance programme. Consider covering settlement channels if flooding a serious risk Floc carry over due to variations in raw water characteristics Regular inspection and dose optimisation Floc carry over due to effects of weather condition Regular inspection and maintenance programme. Floc carry over due to inadequate cleaning of clarifiers Regular inspection and maintenance programme Water Treatment Manual: Disinfection Hazard Control Floc carryover due to poor settlement/ unstable sludge blanket Regular inspection. Floc carryover due to sludge float/ scraper not operating properly Regular inspection and maintenance programme Floc carryover due to sludge concentrators not operating properly Regular inspection and maintenance programme Floc carryover due to sludge bleeds not operating properly Regular inspection and maintenance programme Floc carryover due to insufficient sludge draw off Regular inspection and maintenance programme Chemicals used after expiration date – ineffective chemicals Ensure chemicals are stored appropriately and used within expiry date Inadequate storage areas for chemical stocks, risk of running out of treatment Ensure storage is adequate for required chemical stockpile. Consider moving dosing point Inadequate cleaning regime in mixing tank Regular inspection and maintenance programme Algal or plant growth in clarifiers causing poor water quality and clogged filters Regular inspection and maintenance programme Poor structural integrity of clarifiers causing contamination due to ingress Regular inspection and maintenance programme Sludge recycled to head of works Ensure sludge quality and quantity suitable for reuse. Inadequate particle removal due to blocked filters Run filters within design and operating limits. Assess by measurement of head loss, flow rate and turbidity Inadequate particle removal due to inadequate filter media depth Check appropriate media depth for design of filter. Water Treatment Manual: Disinfection Hazard Control Inadequate particle removal due to inadequate filter media type Check appropriate media type for design of filter. Regular inadequate cycle length, uneven scour, pump failure, loss of filter media) inspection of filters and maintenance of backwash equipment. Inadequate particle removal due to poor filter maintenance (cracks, boils etc) Regular inspection and maintenance programme. Rapid gravity filters put back into operation without slow start Use slow start, delayed start or run to waste on filter return to service. Slow sand filters put back into operation without ripening period causing Check appropriate ripening regime in place. Filtered Water – Cryptosporidium breakthrough Ensure turbidity monitors on each filter routinely reviewed. Assess with turbidity there is a risk of the presence of Cryptosporidium in the raw water measurements, provide appropriate alarms. Backwash water recycled to head of works causing increased turbidity Monitor turbidity and flow rate on recycle flow line. Water Treatment Manual: Disinfection Disinfection Hazard Control Disinfection system is not reliable Ensure robust disinfection system in place with appropriate monitors and alarms on key equipment. Chemicals used after expiration date – ineffective chemicals Ensure chemical storage is appropriately sized. Water Treatment Manual: Disinfection Other hazards associated with the treatment plant Hazard Control Loss of Power Supply Consider back up power supply e. Fire/Explosion - loss or restriction of treatment works Ensure risks are minimised through good health and safety procedures.