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Breathless- ﬂuid balance depends on the relative excess of sodium ness is an early symptom 200 mg tramadol overnight delivery. Sodium excess > water excess there may be crackles heard bilaterally at the bases of causes hypernatraemia (see page 3) whereas water ex- the chest because of pulmonary oedema order 100 mg tramadol with visa. This invariably causes hyponatraemia (see ure the blood pressure often falls with worsening ﬂuid page 4) generic 50 mg tramadol visa. Pleural effusions and ascites suggest ﬂuid is also some degree of sodium excess there may be overload, but in some cases there may be increased symptoms and signs of ﬂuid overload. Assessing ﬂuid balance Urine output monitoring and 24-hour ﬂuid balance This is an important part of the clinical evaluation of charts are essential in unwell patients. Daily weights are patients with a variety of illnesses, which may affect the useful in patients with ﬂuid overload particularly those Chapter 1: Fluid and electrolyte balance 3 with renal or cardiac failure. Oliguria (urine output cardiac failure, and these patients may require in- below 0. A lowurine output may be due to prere- Further investigations and management depend on the nal (decreased renal perfusion due to volume depletion underlying cause. Baseline and serial U&Es to look for or poor cardiac function), renal (acute tubular necrosis renal impairment (see page 230) should be performed. In previously ﬁt patients, particularly if there is raymay show cardiomegaly and pulmonary oedema. However, the management is hypoxia due to underlying lung disease or pulmonary verydifferent in ﬂuid overload or in oliguria due to other oedema. In cases of doubt (and where Hypernatraemia appropriate following exclusion of urinary obstruction) aﬂuidchallengeof∼500mLofnormalsalineoracolloid Deﬁnition (see page 9) over 10–20 minutes may be given. Incidence previous history of cardiac disease, elderly or with renal This occurs much less commonly than hyponatraemia. Patients should be reassessed regularly (initially usually within 1–2 hours) as to the effect of treatment on Sex ﬂuid status, urine output and particularly for evidence M = F of cardiac failure: r If urine output has improved and there is no evidence Aetiology of cardiac failure, further ﬂuid replacement should be This is usually due to water loss in excess of sodium loss, prescribed as necessary. Those r If the urine output does not improve and the patient at most risk of reduced intake include the elderly, infants continues to appear ﬂuid depleted, more ﬂuid should and confused or unconscious patients. The normal physiological response to a rise in extracel- r If hypotension persists despite adequate ﬂuid replace- lular ﬂuid osmolality is for water to move out of cells. Pa- ment, this indicates poor perfusion due to sepsis or tients become thirsty and there is increased vasopressin 4 Chapter 1: Principles and practice of medicine and surgery release stimulating water reabsorption by the kidneys. Urine output and plasma Changes in the membrane potential in the brain leads to sodium should be monitored frequently. The under- impaired neuronal function and if there is severe shrink- lying cause should also be looked for and treated. Cellsalsobegintoproduceorganicsolutes allowedtodrinkfreelyasthisisthesafestwaytocorrect after about 24 hours to draw ﬂuid back into the cell. Patients may be irritable or tired, pro- is less hypertonic than the plasma so this will help to gressing to confusion and ﬁnally coma. Signs of ﬂuid over- load suggest excessive administration of salt or Conn’s normal saline (0. There may be neurological worsening hyperglycaemia which can alter the osmo- signs such as tremor, hyperreﬂexia or seizures. Complications Prognosis Hypernatraemicencephalopathyandintracranialhaem- The mortality rate of severe hypernatraemia is as high as orrhage (may be cerebral, subdural or subarachnoid) 60% often due to coexistent disease, and there is a high may occur in severe cases. Hyponatraemia Investigations Deﬁnition r The diagnosis is conﬁrmed by the ﬁnding of high Aserumsodium concentration <135 mmol/L. Serum glucose and urine sodium, potassium and osmolality should also be re- Incidence quested. If there is raised urine osmolality, this is a sign Occurs relatively commonly, with 1% of hospitalised pa- that the kidneys are responding normally to hyperna- tients affected. Hyponatraemia with Congestive cardiac failure, cirrhosis, r In psychogenic polydipsia, patients drink such large ﬂuid overload nephrotic syndrome Renal failure volumes of water that the ability of the kidney to ex- Severe hypothyroidism crete it is exceeded. The brain is most sensi- Opiates, ecstasy tive to this and if hyponatraemia occurs rapidly oedema develops, leading to raised intracranial pressure, brain- stem herniation and death. If hyponatraemia develops it is acute or chronic and whether there is ﬂuid depletion, more slowly, the cells can offset the change in osmolality euvolaemia or ﬂuid overload. This reduces the degree r Acute hyponatraemia is usually due to vomiting and of water movement and there is less cerebral oedema. The severity depends on the ceases and the kidneys rapidly excrete the excess water degree of hyponatraemia and the rapidity at which (up to 10–20 L/day). In severe cases, the patient may have seizures water there needs to be the following: r or become comatose. It is important to take a careful Adequate ﬁltrate reaching the thick ascending loop of drug history, including the use of any illicit drugs such Henle (where sodium is extracted to produce a dilute as heroin or ecstasy. This is impaired in renal failure and hypo- of ﬂuid depletion or ﬂuid overload (see page 2). Investigations r Adequate active reabsorption of sodium at the loop of To determine the cause of hyponatraemia the following Henle and distal convoluted tubule, this is impaired tests are needed: the plasma osmolality, urine osmolality by all diuretics. Almost all of the body’s potassium stores are intracellu- r Urine osmolality helps to differentiate the causes of lar, with a high concentration of potassium maintained hyponatraemia with a low plasma osmolality. If the urine ingcellularmembranepotentialandsmallchangesinthe is dilute, this suggests psychogenic polydipsia or ex- extracellular potassium level affect the normal function cessiveinappropriateintravenousdextroseordextros- ofcells,particularlyofmusclecells,e. Fluid reple- r Intake can be increased by a potassium-rich diet or by tion should lead to the production of dilute urine (low oral or intravenous supplements. Vom- In addition, thyroid function tests and cortisol should iting or diarrhoea can reduce total body potassium. AshortSyn- by the kidneys is controlled by aldosterone, which acts acthen test (see page 441) may also be indicated. Dis- Management turbances of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone sys- In all cases, treating the underlying cause successfully tem can therefore cause alterations in the potassium will lead to a return to normal values.
Alternative regimes include meﬂoquine generic 200 mg tramadol otc, vulsions and coma) order tramadol 200 mg free shipping, severe anaemia (red cell lysis and re- Maloprim (dapsone and pyrimethamine) or doxycy- duced erythropoesis) 50mg tramadol with amex, hypoglycaemia, hepatic and renal cline. It may also lead to severe intravascular haemol- endemic area (in order to detect establish tolerance) ysis causing dark brown/black urine (blackwater fever) and should continue for 4 weeks after leaving the en- particularly after treatment with quinine. Investigations Diagnosis is by identiﬁcation of parasites on thick and thin blood ﬁlms. Although the ﬁrst specimen is positive in 95% of cases at least three negative samples are re- Myelodysplastic and quired to exclude the diagnosis. The thick ﬁlm is more myeloproliferative disorders sensitive for diagnosis and the thin ﬁlm is used to dif- ferentiate the parasites and quantify the percentage of Myelodysplastic syndromes parasite infected cells. Supportive therapy includes red blood cell and platelet transfusions and the use of antibiotics for infections. Al- Incidence logeneic stem cell transplantation is potentially curative 20 per 100,000 per year over the age of 70 years. These conditions have some common features: r Refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and r Extramedullary haemopoesis in the spleen and liver. Pathophysiology There may be transformation from one condition to an- The disorder arises from a single abnormal stem cell. Clinical features Patients with myelodysplastic syndrome typically present with symptoms of anaemia, thrombocytopenia Incidence (spontaneous bruising and petechiae or mucosal bleed- 1per 100,000 per year. Investigations Bone marrow aspirate examination shows normal or in- creased cellularity with megaloblastic cells and some- Sex times ring sideroblasts and abnormal myeloblasts. M>F Chapter 12: Myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative disorders 483 Aetiology/pathophysiology inwhominterferon-α hasfailedtocontrolthedisease. Almost all patients have the Philadelphia chromosome, a Cytogenetic remission is achieved in 70% of patients. Initiallythereisachronicindolentphase lasting3–5years,followedbyanacceleratedphaselasting Polycythaemia vera 6– to 18 months. Myeloid precursors and megakaryocytes may is often found from an incidental full blood count. Investigations Age r Full blood count and blood ﬁlm reveal a high neu- Most commonly presents over the age of 50 years. There may also be an increase in other gran- Sex ulocytes (basophils and eosinophils), thrombocytosis M>F and anaemia. In the chronic phase blast cells account for <10% of peripheral white blood cells. Idiopathicdisorder,althoughgeneticandenvironmental r Bone marrow aspirate shows a hypercellular marrow factors have been suggested. Polycythemia results in increased Management blood viscosity increasing the risk of arterial or venous r Hydroxyurea can induce a haematologic remission thrombosis. Platelet function is often disrupted risking and decrease splenomegaly but does not treat the un- bleeding. Patients may complain r Imatinib, a competitive inhibitor of the Bcr-Abl ty- of pruritus especially after a hot bath or shower. Hy- rosine kinase, is recommended for Philadelphia- perviscosity may result in headache or blurred vision. Abnormalities in platelet function can lead to epis- taxis, bruising and mucosal bleeding (including pep- tic ulcer disease) although severe bleeding is unusual. Prevalence r Increased blood cell turnover can lead to hyper- 2per 1,000,000 population. Investigations Fullbloodcountshowsanincreasedredbloodcellcount, Sex haemoglobin and packed cell volume. Polycythaemia vera can be distinguished from other Aetiology causes of polycythaemia by an increase in white cell Increased risk following exposure to benzene or radi- count, platelets and a high neutrophil alkaline phos- ation. On examina- hydroxyurea has been considered safe for long-term tion there is massive splenomegaly. Symptoms and signs maintenance it is also associated with increased risk of marrow failure (anaemia, recurrent infections and of development of leukaemia in comparison with ve- bleeding) may be present. Chapter 12: Leukaemia and lymphoma 485 r Splenectomy may be required if the enlarged spleen Leukaemia and lymphoma is painful or to reduce transfusion requirements. Amyeloproliferative disorder characterised by increased platelets due to clonal proliferation of megakaryocytes Age in the bone marrow. Pathophysiology Platelets although increased in number have disrupted Sex function causing them to clump intravascularly lead- M = F ing to thrombosis, and to fail to aggregate causing bleeding. Risk factors include exposure to excessive ra- bleeding and cerebrovascular symptoms. Pathophysiology In acute leukaemias there is replacement of the normal Investigations bone marrow progenitor cells by blast cells, resulting in The blood ﬁlm shows increased numbers of platelets and marrow failure. Bone marrow aspiration demonstrates from the lymphoid side of the haemopoetic system (see increased megakaryocytes. Patients with life-threatening haem- orrhagic or thrombotic events should be treated with Clinical features thrombocytopheresis in addition to hydroxyurea. An- Often there is an insidious onset of anorexia, malaise grelide is occasionally used. There is often a history of recurrent infections and/or easy bruising and mucosal Prognosis bleeding. Other presentations include lymph node en- Essential thrombocythaemia may eventually transform largement, bone and joint pain and symptoms of raised to myeloﬁbrosis or acute leukaemia but the disease may intra cranial pressure. Phase 2 involves in- travenous chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide and cy- tosine) with oral 6-mercaptopurine. Lymphoid Stem Cell r Intensiﬁcation: This involves intravenous metho- trexate and folinic acid, with intramuscular L- asparginase. Lymphoblast r Consolidation: This involves several cycles of chemotherapy at lower doses.
The clinical presentation may not the ﬁgure is 12 to 18 per 1000 among children younger be so obvious in the elderly buy generic tramadol 50mg line, who may initially display than 4 years of age and 20 per 1000 among persons new-onset or worsening confusion and few other mani- older than 60 years of age cheap tramadol 50mg without a prescription. Finally order tramadol 100 mg online, without culture ask two questions: Is this pneumonia, and, if so, what is and susceptibility data, trends in resistance cannot be fol- the etiology? Whereas the former question is typically lowed accurately, and appropriate empirical therapeutic answered by clinical and radiographic methods, the latter regimens are harder to devise. Gram’s Stain and Culture of Sputum Clinical Diagnosis The main purpose of the sputum Gram’s stain is to ensure that a sample is suitable for culture. However, Gram’s The differential diagnosis includes both infectious and staining may also help to identify certain pathogens (e. The importance of a a sputum sample must have >25 neutrophils and <10 careful history cannot be overemphasized. The sensi- known cardiac disease may suggest worsening pulmonary tivity and speciﬁcity of the sputum Gram’s stain and culture edema, and underlying carcinoma may suggest lung injury are highly variable; even in cases of proven bacteremic secondary to radiation. Epidemiologic clues, such as recent pneumococcal pneumonia; the yield of positive cultures travel to areas with known endemic pathogens, may alert from sputum samples is ≤50%. Some patients, particularly elderly individuals, may Unfortunately, the sensitivity and speciﬁcity of the not be able to produce an appropriate expectorated spu- ﬁndings on physical examination are less than ideal, tum sample. Radiographic ﬁndings serve as a be a consequence of dehydration, and the correction of baseline and may include risk factors for increased this condition may result in increased sputum produc- severity (e. For example, pneumatoceles suggest infection suction aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage sample should with S. For patients greatest beneﬁt of staining and culturing respiratory managed on an outpatient basis, the clinical and radio- secretions is to alert the physician of unsuspected or logic assessment is usually all that is done before treat- resistant pathogens and to permit appropriate modiﬁca- ment is started because most laboratory test results are tion of therapy. Other stains and cultures may be useful not available soon enough to inﬂuence initial manage- as well. Cultures of pleural ﬂuid infection), the availability of rapid point-of-care diag- obtained from effusions >1 cm in height on a lateral nostic tests and access to speciﬁc drugs for treatment and decubitus chest radiograph may also be helpful. Blood Cultures Etiologic Diagnosis The yield from blood cultures, even those obtained The cause of pneumonia usually cannot be determined before antibiotic therapy, is disappointingly low. Only on the basis of clinical presentation; instead, the physician ∼5–14% of cultures of blood from patients hospitalized must rely on the laboratory for support. However, susceptibility data may etiology can therefore be questioned, particularly in light allow a switch from a broader-spectrum regimen (e. However, a number of ﬂuoroquinolone or β-lactam plus a macrolide) to peni- reasons can be advanced for attempting an etiologic diag- cillin in appropriate cases. Certain high-risk patients—including 104 those with neutropenia secondary to pneumonia, asple- minimize unnecessary hospital admissions and help to nia, or complement deﬁciencies; chronic liver disease; or identify patients who will beneﬁt from hospital care. The sensitivity and speciﬁcity of resulting score, patients are assigned to one of ﬁve the Legionella urine antigen test are as high as 90% and classes with the following mortality rates: class 1, 0. Both tests can detect antigen even admitted to the hospital, and those in class 3 should after the initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy and ideally be admitted to an observation unit until a fur- after weeks of illness. Patients with a score of 0, Polymerase Chain Reaction among whom the 30-day mortality rate is 1. In the past, serologic tests were Whichever system is used, these objective criteria must used to help identify atypical pathogens as well as some always be tempered by careful consideration of factors typical but relatively unusual organisms, such as Coxiella relevant to individual patients, including the ability to burnetii. Recently, however, they have fallen out of favor comply reliably with an oral antibiotic regimen and the because of the time required to obtain a ﬁnal result for resources available to the patient outside the hospital. In addition, an efﬂux pump may play a role solely caused by the presence of low-afﬁnity penicillin- in pneumococcal resistance to ﬂuoroquinolones. The efﬂux mechanism encoded by the among isolates of Escherichia coli from the community mef gene (M phenotype) is usually associated with appears to be increasing. These two resistant to cephalosporins; the drugs of choice for use mechanisms account for ∼45% and ∼65%, respectively, against these bacteria are usually ﬂuoroquinolones or of resistant pneumococcal isolates in the United States. Telithromycin, a ketolide derived from macrolide resistance,b consider the alternatives listed the macrolide class, differs from the macrolides in that it above for patients with comorbidities. This drug is active against pneumococci resis- • A respiratory ﬂuoroquinolone [moxiﬂoxacin tant to penicillins, macrolides, and ﬂuoroquinolones. However, this decision is not always straight- (1 g once, then 500 mg od)] forward. Some experts Special Concerns would argue that pneumococcal coverage by a switch If Pseudomonas infection is a consideration: to penicillin is appropriate, but others would opt for • An antipneumococcal, antipseudomonal β-lactam continued coverage of both the pneumococcus and [piperacillin/tazobactam (4. The exact reason is unknown, but bMinimal inhibitory concentrations of >16 μg/mL in 25% of isolates. Patients have usually been superinfections—both pulmonary and extrapulmonary— treated for 10–14 days, but recent studies with ﬂuoro- are possible explanations for persistence. Data from studies with azithromycin, which sug- and exacerbation of comorbid illnesses. Ade- that cover the known or suspected pathogens should quate hydration, oxygen therapy for hypoxemia, and be administered. A signiﬁcant pleural effusion should be assisted ventilation (when necessary) are critical to the tapped for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Immunomodulatory therapy in the form of be drained, and a chest tube is usually required. Chest radiographic abnormalities are slowest to Failure to Improve Patients who are slow to resolve and may require 4–12 weeks to clear, with the respond to therapy should be reevaluated at about day 3 speed of clearance depending on the patient’s age and (sooner if their condition is worsening rather than simply underlying lung disease. For a patient whose condition not improving), and a number of possible scenarios is improving and who (if hospitalized) has been dis- should be considered. Older patients and Streptococcus pneumoniae Pseudomonas aeruginosa those with comorbid conditions can take several weeks Other Streptococcus spp.
Patients less than 3 months of age with idiopathic clubfoot were recruited and treated according the Ponseti method discount 100 mg tramadol fast delivery. All the feet Introduction/Background: The percentage of overweight and were classifed prior to casting and at the end of casting period into: obese elementary school children in Taiwan has become 25% in benign cheap 100mg tramadol visa, moderate buy generic tramadol 200 mg on-line, severe and very severe grade according to Dimé- these years, and the overweight and obese children are not only glio’s classifcation. Evaluation at walk age and at 5 years follows lower performance in physical ftness but also at higher risk of de- up. Clinical This study reports the effectiveness of the hospital based physical presentation includes ipsilateral tilt and controlateral rotation, ftness program intervention by physical therapists and nutrition- and translation. Etiologies are various including muscular enti- ists in overweight and obese elementary school children. Material ties, traumatic, infammatory, infectious, tumor and non-muscular and Methods: The hospital based physical ftness program was entities. Material and Methods: A 10-year-old boy, without medi- designed as a weight loss and ftness camp, holding by Lotung Po- cal history, consulted for a recent painful torticollis. All children were tested included body composition cervical spinal cord was demanded. It revealed a cervical mass (weight-length index), muscular ftness (sit-up test), fexibility (sit extended from C1 to C7 and the appearance of this lesion suggests and reach test), and cardio-respiratory ftness (six-minute walk an astrocytoma. Given the location of the tumor and the high risk test) at the beginning and end of the camp. Results: The aver- of quadriplegia, surgical treatment was delayed until the onset of age score of fexibility was signifcantly improved (p=0. Although the average score of body composition the importance of researching the cause of an acquired torticollis (p=0. However, when the etiology is uncertain then diagnostic intervention by physical therapists and nutritionists for overweight radiologic examinations are necessary to plan optimal treatment. However acquired torticollis in children gram improved the average score of fexibility in overweight and must always instigate an etiologie. Further study should extend the period of Isometric Strength intervention and recruit more children to participate the study. Ferrada2, tional neurology developmental therapy and muscle strength train- 1 2 ing, emphasizing the balance of muscle strength, muscle tone, and Santiago, Rehabilitation National Institute “Pedro Aguirre Cer- motor control. However, all this are focused on 12 weeks, including squat-walking, alternate half kneeling, waling body functions and structures, but less has been said about social on knees (forward, backward and side ward) by weight bearing participation and, specifcally, school education. Material thickness of anterior tibial muscle belly (by B ultrasound) were and Method: Retrospective chart review. Other variables assessed were previous diag- Case Diagnosis: Dopa-responsive dystonia (Segawa disease) noses, signs and symptoms, complications and treatment. The most frequent diagnoses that led to the re- His early motor development was normal. The most common changes were decreased bladder com- as having spastic paraparesis and cerebral palsy. His symptoms relieved signifcantly and gait abnor- prescribed treatments were parasympatholytic drugs (28. Methods: macrosomia, reference to shoulder dystocia, maternal diabetes, Forty-fve preterm infants ≤1,250 g birth weight randomly allo- level of brachial plexus injury, the high consultation age, presence cated to either caffeine group (n=21) or control group (n=24), the of sequelae and treatment performed were collected. Results: A caffeine group received caffeine within 3 days of life; no other total of 126 children were observed in a rehabilitation consulta- different treatment measures were existed in the caffeine group tion. The median gesta- in the frst day after birth (1 day) and at a postmenstrual age of tional age was 39 weeks and 6. Most tion was shorter in infants receiving caffeine (caffeine group, 6 of the injuries were the Duchenne-Erb type (90%), 8. Regarding the type of injury signifcant differences in continuous background activity (19±30% according to Narakas rating 38. The lack of function of the brachial biceps muscle at three wake cycling (95±33% vs 76±26%, t=10. Conclusion: The results are in agree- had improved neonatal outcomes including lower mortality and in- ment with the literature reviewed. Data collection Further studies of more samples and multi center are needed to for the study was limited by the heterogeneity of consulted medi- confrm these caffeine prophylaxis effects. We also evaluated Objective: To explore the effects of core stability training on fne mo- their activity of daily life using Barthel index. Results: The peaks of the developmental curve were almost vided into two groups according to the hospital medical records sin- 5-6 years old. The physical abilities of the whole body, skilled gle, with 30 cases in each group. The control group received routine hand motor activities, behaviour, interpersonal skills and speech rehabilitation. The observation group received core stability training ability were decline linearly with age (r=-0. How- for 15 minutes during exercise therapy training in routine rehabilita- ever, language comprehension had not correlated signifcantly tion, including unarmed training, with the help of apparatus exercises with age (r=-0. From our results, language Conclusion: Core stability training combined with routine rehabilita- comprehension was retained after the patients become bed-bound. Methods: 50 children with cerebral palsy were Objective:To investigate quality of life in Autistic Disorder children. The The quality of life of Autistic Disorder group was lower than nor- interrater reliability was analyzed with kappa correlation statis- mal group in the scores of physical functioning were (62.